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Latent Translation: Crossing Modalities by Bridging Generative Models

Yingtao Tian, Jesse Engel

End-to-end optimization has achieved state-of-the-art performance on many specific problems, but there is no straight-forward way to combine pretrained models for new problems. Here, we explore improving modularity by learning a post-hoc interface between two existing models to solve a new task. Specifically, we take inspiration from neural machine translation, and cast the challenging problem of cross-modal domain transfer as unsupervised translation between the latent spaces of pretrained deep generative models. By abstracting away the data representation, we demonstrate that it is possible to transfer across different modalities (e.g., image-to-audio) and even different types of generative models (e.g., VAE-to-GAN). We compare to state-of-the-art techniques and find that a straight-forward variational autoencoder is able to best bridge the two generative models through learning a shared latent space. We can further impose supervised alignment of attributes in both domains with a classifier in the shared latent space. Through qualitative and quantitative evaluations, we demonstrate that locality and semantic alignment are preserved through the transfer process, as indicated by high transfer accuracies and smooth interpolations within a class. Finally, we show this modular structure speeds up training of new interface models by several orders of magnitude by decoupling it from expensive retraining of base generative models.

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Augmentation for small object detection

Mate Kisantal, Zbigniew Wojna, Jakub Murawski, Jacek Naruniec, Kyunghyun Cho

In recent years, object detection has experienced impressive progress. Despite these improvements, there is still a significant gap in the performance between the detection of small and large objects. We analyze the current state-of-the-art model, Mask-RCNN, on a challenging dataset, MS COCO. We show that the overlap between small ground-truth objects and the predicted anchors is much lower than the expected IoU threshold. We conjecture this is due to two factors; (1) only a few images are containing small objects, and (2) small objects do not appear enough even within each image containing them. We thus propose to oversample those images with small objects and augment each of those images by copy-pasting small objects many times. It allows us to trade off the quality of the detector on large objects with that on small objects. We evaluate different pasting augmentation strategies, and ultimately, we achieve 9.7\% relative improvement on the instance segmentation and 7.1\% on the object detection of small objects, compared to the current state of the art method on MS COCO.

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Wide Neural Networks of Any Depth Evolve as Linear Models Under Gradient Descent

Jaehoon Lee, Lechao Xiao, Samuel S. Schoenholz, Yasaman Bahri, Jascha Sohl-Dickstein, Jeffrey Pennington

A longstanding goal in deep learning research has been to precisely characterize training and generalization. However, the often complex loss landscapes of neural networks have made a theory of learning dynamics elusive. In this work, we show that for wide neural networks the learning dynamics simplify considerably and that, in the infinite width limit, they are governed by a linear model obtained from the first-order Taylor expansion of the network around its initial parameters. Furthermore, mirroring the correspondence between wide Bayesian neural networks and Gaussian processes, gradient-based training of wide neural networks with a squared loss produces test set predictions drawn from a Gaussian process with a particular compositional kernel. While these theoretical results are only exact in the infinite width limit, we nevertheless find excellent empirical agreement between the predictions of the original network and those of the linearized version even for finite practically-sized networks. This agreement is robust across different architectures, optimization methods, and loss functions.

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A Fully Differentiable Beam Search Decoder

Ronan Collobert, Awni Hannun, Gabriel Synnaeve

We introduce a new beam search decoder that is fully differentiable, making it possible to optimize at training time through the inference procedure. Our decoder allows us to combine models which operate at different granularities (e.g. acoustic and language models). It can be used when target sequences are not aligned to input sequences by considering all possible alignments between the two. We demonstrate our approach scales by applying it to speech recognition, jointly training acoustic and word-level language models. The system is end-to-end, with gradients flowing through the whole architecture from the word-level transcriptions. Recent research efforts have shown that deep neural networks with attention-based mechanisms are powerful enough to successfully train an acoustic model from the final transcription, while implicitly learning a language model. Instead, we show that it is possible to discriminatively train an acoustic model jointly with an explicit and possibly pre-trained language model.

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Contextual Word Representations: A Contextual Introduction

Noah A. Smith

This introduction aims to tell the story of how we put words into computers. It is part of the story of the field of natural language processing (NLP), a branch of artificial intelligence. It targets a wide audience with a basic understanding of computer programming, but avoids a detailed mathematical treatment, and it does not present any algorithms. It also does not focus on any particular application of NLP such as translation, question answering, or information extraction. The ideas presented here were developed by many researchers over many decades, so the citations are not exhaustive but rather direct the reader to a handful of papers that are, in the author's view, seminal. After reading this document, you should have a general understanding of word vectors (also known as word embeddings): why they exist, what problems they solve, where they come from, how they have changed over time, and what some of the open questions about them are. Readers already familiar with word vectors are advised to skip to Section 5 for the discussion of the most recent advance, contextual word vectors.

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Graph-RISE: Graph-Regularized Image Semantic Embedding

Da-Cheng Juan, Chun-Ta Lu, Zhen Li, Futang Peng, Aleksei Timofeev, Yi-Ting Chen, Yaxi Gao, Tom Duerig, Andrew Tomkins, Sujith Ravi

Learning image representations to capture fine-grained semantics has been a challenging and important task enabling many applications such as image search and clustering. In this paper, we present Graph-Regularized Image Semantic Embedding (Graph-RISE), a large-scale neural graph learning framework that allows us to train embeddings to discriminate an unprecedented O(40M) ultra-fine-grained semantic labels. Graph-RISE outperforms state-of-the-art image embedding algorithms on several evaluation tasks, including image classification and triplet ranking. We provide case studies to demonstrate that, qualitatively, image retrieval based on Graph-RISE effectively captures semantics and, compared to the state-of-the-art, differentiates nuances at levels that are closer to human-perception.

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A survey on Adversarial Attacks and Defenses in Text

Wenqi Wang, Benxiao Tang, Run Wang, Lina Wang, Aoshuang Ye

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have shown an inherent vulnerability to adversarial examples which are maliciously crafted on real examples by attackers, aiming at making target DNNs misbehave. The threats of adversarial examples are widely existed in image, voice, speech, and text recognition and classification. Inspired by the previous work, researches on adversarial attacks and defenses in text domain develop rapidly. To the best of our knowledge, this article presents a comprehensive review on adversarial examples in text. We analyze the advantages and shortcomings of recent adversarial examples generation methods and elaborate the efficiency and limitations on countermeasures. Finally, we discuss the challenges in adversarial texts and provide a research direction of this aspect.

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Adversarial Generation of Time-Frequency Features with application in audio synthesis

Andrés Marafioti, Nicki Holighaus, Nathanaël Perraudin, Piotr Majdak

Time-frequency (TF) representations provide powerful and intuitive features for the analysis of time series such as audio. But still, generative modeling of audio in the TF domain is a subtle matter. Consequently, neural audio synthesis widely relies on directly modeling the waveform and previous attempts at unconditionally synthesizing audio from neurally generated TF features still struggle to produce audio at satisfying quality. In this contribution, focusing on the short-time Fourier transform, we discuss the challenges that arise in audio synthesis based on generated TF features and how to overcome them. We demonstrate the potential of deliberate generative TF modeling by training a generative adversarial network (GAN) on short-time Fourier features. We show that our TF-based network was able to outperform the state-of-the-art GAN generating waveform, despite the similar architecture in the two networks.

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Matrix Cofactorization for Joint Representation Learning and Supervised Classification -- Application to Hyperspectral Image Analysis

Adrien Lagrange, Mathieu Fauvel, Stéphane May, José Bioucas-Dias, Nicolas Dobigeon

Supervised classification and representation learning are two widely used methods to analyze multivariate images. Although complementary, these two classes of methods have been scarcely considered jointly. In this paper, a method coupling these two approaches is designed using a matrix cofactorization formulation. Each task is modeled as a factorization matrix problem and a term relating both coding matrices is then introduced to drive an appropriate coupling. The link can be interpreted as a clustering operation over the low-dimensional representation vectors. The attribution vectors of the clustering are then used as features vectors for the classification task, i.e., the coding vectors of the corresponding factorization problem. A proximal gradient descent algorithm, ensuring convergence to a critical point of the objective function, is then derived to solve the resulting non-convex non-smooth optimization problem. An evaluation of the proposed method is finally conducted both on synthetic and real data in the specific context of hyperspectral image interpretation, unifying two standard analysis techniques, namely unmixing and classification.

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On the Variance of Unbiased Online Recurrent Optimization

Tim Cooijmans, James Martens

The recently proposed Unbiased Online Recurrent Optimization algorithm (UORO, arXiv:1702.05043) uses an unbiased approximation of RTRL to achieve fully online gradient-based learning in RNNs. In this work we analyze the variance of the gradient estimate computed by UORO, and propose several possible changes to the method which reduce this variance both in theory and practice. We also contribute significantly to the theoretical and intuitive understanding of UORO (and its existing variance reduction technique), and demonstrate a fundamental connection between its gradient estimate and the one that would be computed by REINFORCE if small amounts of noise were added to the RNN's hidden units.

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GEN-SLAM: Generative Modeling for Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

Punarjay Chakravarty, Praveen Narayanan, Tom Roussel

We present a Deep Learning based system for the twin tasks of localization and obstacle avoidance essential to any mobile robot. Our system learns from conventional geometric SLAM, and outputs, using a single camera, the topological pose of the camera in an environment, and the depth map of obstacles around it. We use a CNN to localize in a topological map, and a conditional VAE to output depth for a camera image, conditional on this topological location estimation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our monocular localization and depth estimation system on simulated and real datasets.

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Non-Monotonic Sequential Text Generation

Sean Welleck, Kianté Brantley, Hal Daumé III, Kyunghyun Cho

Standard sequential generation methods assume a pre-specified generation order, such as text generation methods which generate words from left to right. In this work, we propose a framework for training models of text generation that operate in non-monotonic orders; the model directly learns good orders, without any additional annotation. Our framework operates by generating a word at an arbitrary position, and then recursively generating words to its left and then words to its right, yielding a binary tree. Learning is framed as imitation learning, including a coaching method which moves from imitating an oracle to reinforcing the policy's own preferences. Experimental results demonstrate that using the proposed method, it is possible to learn policies which generate text without pre-specifying a generation order, while achieving competitive performance with conventional left-to-right generation.

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Certified Reinforcement Learning with Logic Guidance

Mohammadhosein Hasanbeig, Alessandro Abate, Daniel Kroening

This paper proposes the first model-free Reinforcement Learning (RL) framework to synthesise policies for an unknown, and possibly continuous-state, Markov Decision Process (MDP), such that a given linear temporal property is satisfied. We convert the given property into a Limit Deterministic Buchi Automaton (LDBA), namely a finite-state machine expressing the property. Exploiting the structure of the LDBA, we shape an adaptive reward function on-the-fly, so that an RL algorithm can synthesise a policy resulting in traces that probabilistically satisfy the linear temporal property. This probability (certificate) is also calculated in parallel with learning, i.e. the RL algorithm produces a policy that is certifiably safe with respect to the property. Under the assumption that the MDP has a finite number of states, theoretical guarantees are provided on the convergence of the RL algorithm. We also show that our method produces "best available" control policies when the logical property cannot be satisfied. Whenever the MDP has a continuous state space, we empirically show that our framework finds satisfying policies, if there exist such policies. Additionally, the proposed algorithm can handle time-varying periodic environments. The performance of the proposed architecture is evaluated via a set of numerical examples and benchmarks, where we observe an improvement of one order of magnitude in the number of iterations required for the policy synthesis, compared to existing approaches whenever available.

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Parameter-Efficient Transfer Learning for NLP

Neil Houlsby, Andrei Giurgiu, Stanislaw Jastrzebski, Bruna Morrone, Quentin de Laroussilhe, Andrea Gesmundo, Mona Attariyan, Sylvain Gelly

Fine-tuning large pre-trained models is an effective transfer mechanism in NLP. However, in the presence of many downstream tasks, fine-tuning is parameter inefficient: an entire new model is required for every task. As an alternative, we propose transfer with adapter modules. Adapter modules yield a compact and extensible model; they add only a few trainable parameters per task, and new tasks can be added without revisiting previous ones. The parameters of the original network remain fixed, yielding a high degree of parameter sharing. To demonstrate adapter's effectiveness, we transfer the recently proposed BERT Transformer model to 26 diverse text classification tasks, including the GLUE benchmark. Adapters attain near state-of-the-art performance, whilst adding only a few parameters per task. On GLUE, we attain within 0.4% of the performance of full fine-tuning, adding only 3.6% parameters per task. By contrast, fine-tuning trains 100% of the parameters per task.

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Visual Rationalizations in Deep Reinforcement Learning for Atari Games

Laurens Weitkamp, Elise van der Pol, Zeynep Akata

Due to the capability of deep learning to perform well in high dimensional problems, deep reinforcement learning agents perform well in challenging tasks such as Atari 2600 games. However, clearly explaining why a certain action is taken by the agent can be as important as the decision itself. Deep reinforcement learning models, as other deep learning models, tend to be opaque in their decision-making process. In this work, we propose to make deep reinforcement learning more transparent by visualizing the evidence on which the agent bases its decision. In this work, we emphasize the importance of producing a justification for an observed action, which could be applied to a black-box decision agent.

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Do we train on test data? Purging CIFAR of near-duplicates

Björn Barz, Joachim Denzler

We find that 3.3% and 10% of the images from the CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 test sets, respectively, have duplicates in the training set. This may incur a bias on the comparison of image recognition techniques with respect to their generalization capability on these heavily benchmarked datasets. To eliminate this bias, we provide the "fair CIFAR" (ciFAIR) dataset, where we replaced all duplicates in the test sets with new images sampled from the same domain. The training set remains unchanged, in order not to invalidate pre-trained models. We then re-evaluate the classification performance of various popular state-of-the-art CNN architectures on these new test sets to investigate whether recent research has overfitted to memorizing data instead of learning abstract concepts. Fortunately, this does not seem to be the case yet. The ciFAIR dataset and pre-trained models are available at https://cvjena.github.io/cifair/, where we also maintain a leaderboard.

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Dataset Culling: Towards Efficient Training Of Distillation-Based Domain Specific Models

Kentaro Yoshioka, Edward Lee, Simon Wong, Mark Horowitz

Real-time CNN based object detection models for applications like surveillance can achieve high accuracy but require extensive computations. Recent work has shown 10 to 100x reduction in computation cost with domain-specific network settings. However, this prior work focused on inference only: if the domain network requires frequent retraining, training and retraining costs can be a significant bottleneck. To address training costs, we propose Dataset Culling: a pipeline to significantly reduce the required training dataset size for domain specific models. Dataset Culling reduces the dataset size by filtering out non-essential data for train-ing, and reducing the size of each image until detection degrades. Both of these operations use a confusion loss metric which enables us to execute the culling with minimal computation overhead. On a custom long-duration dataset, we show that Dataset Culling can reduce the training costs 47x with no accuracy loss or even with slight improvements. Codes are available: https://github.com/kentaroy47/DatasetCulling

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Probabilistic Discriminative Learning with Layered Graphical Models

Yuesong Shen, Tao Wu, Csaba Domokos, Daniel Cremers

Probabilistic graphical models are traditionally known for their successes in generative modeling. In this work, we advocate layered graphical models (LGMs) for probabilistic discriminative learning. To this end, we design LGMs in close analogy to neural networks (NNs), that is, they have deep hierarchical structures and convolutional or local connections between layers. Equipped with tensorized truncated variational inference, our LGMs can be efficiently trained via backpropagation on mainstream deep learning frameworks such as PyTorch. To deal with continuous valued inputs, we use a simple yet effective soft-clamping strategy for efficient inference. Through extensive experiments on image classification over MNIST and FashionMNIST datasets, we demonstrate that LGMs are capable of achieving competitive results comparable to NNs of similar architectures, while preserving transparent probabilistic modeling.

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Benchmarking Classic and Learned Navigation in Complex 3D Environments

Dmytro Mishkin, Alexey Dosovitskiy, Vladlen Koltun

Navigation research is attracting renewed interest with the advent of learning-based methods. However, this new line of work is largely disconnected from well-established classic navigation approaches. In this paper, we take a step towards coordinating these two directions of research. We set up classic and learning-based navigation systems in common simulated environments and thoroughly evaluate them in indoor spaces of varying complexity, with access to different sensory modalities. Additionally, we measure human performance in the same environments. We find that a classic pipeline, when properly tuned, can perform very well in complex cluttered environments. On the other hand, learned systems can operate more robustly with a limited sensor suite. Both approaches are still far from human-level performance.

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Latent Normalizing Flows for Discrete Sequences

Zachary M. Ziegler, Alexander M. Rush

Normalizing flows have been shown to be a powerful class of generative models for continuous random variables, giving both strong performance and the potential for non-autoregressive generation. These benefits are also desired when modeling discrete random variables such as text, but directly applying normalizing flows to discrete sequences poses significant additional challenges. We propose a generative model which jointly learns a normalizing flow-based distribution in the latent space and a stochastic mapping to an observed discrete space. In this setting, we find that it is crucial for the flow-based distribution to be highly multimodal. To capture this property, we propose several normalizing flow architectures to maximize model flexibility. Experiments consider common discrete sequence tasks of character-level language modeling and polyphonic music generation. Our results indicate that an autoregressive flow-based model can match the performance of a comparable autoregressive baseline, and a non-autoregressive flow-based model can improve generation speed with a penalty to performance.

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