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Dataset Culling: Towards Efficient Training Of Distillation-Based Domain Specific Models

Kentaro Yoshioka, Edward Lee, Simon Wong, Mark Horowitz

Real-time CNN based object detection models for applications like surveillance can achieve high accuracy but require extensive computations. Recent work has shown 10 to 100x reduction in computation cost with domain-specific network settings. However, this prior work focused on inference only: if the domain network requires frequent retraining, training and retraining costs can be a significant bottleneck. To address training costs, we propose Dataset Culling: a pipeline to significantly reduce the required training dataset size for domain specific models. Dataset Culling reduces the dataset size by filtering out non-essential data for train-ing, and reducing the size of each image until detection degrades. Both of these operations use a confusion loss metric which enables us to execute the culling with minimal computation overhead. On a custom long-duration dataset, we show that Dataset Culling can reduce the training costs 47x with no accuracy loss or even with slight improvements. Codes are available:

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Probabilistic Discriminative Learning with Layered Graphical Models

Yuesong Shen, Tao Wu, Csaba Domokos, Daniel Cremers

Probabilistic graphical models are traditionally known for their successes in generative modeling. In this work, we advocate layered graphical models (LGMs) for probabilistic discriminative learning. To this end, we design LGMs in close analogy to neural networks (NNs), that is, they have deep hierarchical structures and convolutional or local connections between layers. Equipped with tensorized truncated variational inference, our LGMs can be efficiently trained via backpropagation on mainstream deep learning frameworks such as PyTorch. To deal with continuous valued inputs, we use a simple yet effective soft-clamping strategy for efficient inference. Through extensive experiments on image classification over MNIST and FashionMNIST datasets, we demonstrate that LGMs are capable of achieving competitive results comparable to NNs of similar architectures, while preserving transparent probabilistic modeling.

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Benchmarking Classic and Learned Navigation in Complex 3D Environments

Dmytro Mishkin, Alexey Dosovitskiy, Vladlen Koltun

Navigation research is attracting renewed interest with the advent of learning-based methods. However, this new line of work is largely disconnected from well-established classic navigation approaches. In this paper, we take a step towards coordinating these two directions of research. We set up classic and learning-based navigation systems in common simulated environments and thoroughly evaluate them in indoor spaces of varying complexity, with access to different sensory modalities. Additionally, we measure human performance in the same environments. We find that a classic pipeline, when properly tuned, can perform very well in complex cluttered environments. On the other hand, learned systems can operate more robustly with a limited sensor suite. Both approaches are still far from human-level performance.

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Latent Normalizing Flows for Discrete Sequences

Zachary M. Ziegler, Alexander M. Rush

Normalizing flows have been shown to be a powerful class of generative models for continuous random variables, giving both strong performance and the potential for non-autoregressive generation. These benefits are also desired when modeling discrete random variables such as text, but directly applying normalizing flows to discrete sequences poses significant additional challenges. We propose a generative model which jointly learns a normalizing flow-based distribution in the latent space and a stochastic mapping to an observed discrete space. In this setting, we find that it is crucial for the flow-based distribution to be highly multimodal. To capture this property, we propose several normalizing flow architectures to maximize model flexibility. Experiments consider common discrete sequence tasks of character-level language modeling and polyphonic music generation. Our results indicate that an autoregressive flow-based model can match the performance of a comparable autoregressive baseline, and a non-autoregressive flow-based model can improve generation speed with a penalty to performance.

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Learning Disentangled Representations with Reference-Based Variational Autoencoders

Adria Ruiz, Oriol Martinez, Xavier Binefa, Jakob Verbeek

Learning disentangled representations from visual data, where different high-level generative factors are independently encoded, is of importance for many computer vision tasks. Solving this problem, however, typically requires to explicitly label all the factors of interest in training images. To alleviate the annotation cost, we introduce a learning setting which we refer to as "reference-based disentangling". Given a pool of unlabeled images, the goal is to learn a representation where a set of target factors are disentangled from others. The only supervision comes from an auxiliary "reference set" containing images where the factors of interest are constant. In order to address this problem, we propose reference-based variational autoencoders, a novel deep generative model designed to exploit the weak-supervision provided by the reference set. By addressing tasks such as feature learning, conditional image generation or attribute transfer, we validate the ability of the proposed model to learn disentangled representations from this minimal form of supervision.

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Spatial Broadcast Decoder: A Simple Architecture for Learning Disentangled Representations in VAEs

Nicholas Watters, Loic Matthey, Christopher P. Burgess, Alexander Lerchner

We present a simple neural rendering architecture that helps variational autoencoders (VAEs) learn disentangled representations. Instead of the deconvolutional network typically used in the decoder of VAEs, we tile (broadcast) the latent vector across space, concatenate fixed X- and Y-"coordinate" channels, and apply a fully convolutional network with 1x1 stride. This provides an architectural prior for dissociating positional from non-positional features in the latent distribution of VAEs, yet without providing any explicit supervision to this effect. We show that this architecture, which we term the Spatial Broadcast decoder, improves disentangling, reconstruction accuracy, and generalization to held-out regions in data space. It provides a particularly dramatic benefit when applied to datasets with small objects. We also emphasize a method for visualizing learned latent spaces that helped us diagnose our models and may prove useful for others aiming to assess data representations. Finally, we show the Spatial Broadcast Decoder is complementary to state-of-the-art (SOTA) disentangling techniques and when incorporated improves their performance.

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Generating Textual Adversarial Examples for Deep Learning Models: A Survey

Wei Emma Zhang, Quan Z. Sheng, Ahoud Abdulrahmn F Alhazmi, Chenliang L

With the development of high computational devices, deep neural networks (DNNs), in recent years, have gained significant popularity in many Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications. However, previous efforts have shown that DNNs were vulnerable to strategically modified samples, named adversarial examples. These samples are generated with some imperceptible perturbations but can fool the DNNs to give false predictions. Inspired by the popularity of generating adversarial examples for image DNNs, research efforts on attacking DNNs for textual applications emerges in recent years. However, existing perturbation methods for images cannotbe directly applied to texts as text data is discrete. In this article, we review research works that address this difference and generatetextual adversarial examples on DNNs. We collect, select, summarize, discuss and analyze these works in a comprehensive way andcover all the related information to make the article self-contained. Finally, drawing on the reviewed literature, we provide further discussions and suggestions on this topic.

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Synthesizing facial photometries and corresponding geometries using generative adversarial networks

Gil Shamai, Ron Slossberg, Ron Kimmel

Artificial data synthesis is currently a well studied topic with useful applications in data science, computer vision, graphics and many other fields. Generating realistic data is especially challenging since human perception is highly sensitive to non realistic appearance. In recent times, new levels of realism have been achieved by advances in GAN training procedures and architectures. These successful models, however, are tuned mostly for use with regularly sampled data such as images, audio and video. Despite the successful application of the architecture on these types of media, applying the same tools to geometric data poses a far greater challenge. The study of geometric deep learning is still a debated issue within the academic community as the lack of intrinsic parametrization inherent to geometric objects prohibits the direct use of convolutional filters, a main building block of today's machine learning systems. In this paper we propose a new method for generating realistic human facial geometries coupled with overlayed textures. We circumvent the parametrization issue by imposing a global mapping from our data to the unit rectangle. We further discuss how to design such a mapping to control the mapping distortion and conserve area within the mapped image. By representing geometric textures and geometries as images, we are able to use advanced GAN methodologies to generate new geometries. We address the often neglected topic of relation between texture and geometry and propose to use this correlation to match between generated textures and their corresponding geometries. We offer a new method for training GAN models on partially corrupted data. Finally, we provide empirical evidence demonstrating our generative model's ability to produce examples of new identities independent from the training data while maintaining a high level of realism, two traits that are often at odds.

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Soft Rasterizer: Differentiable Rendering for Unsupervised Single-View Mesh Reconstruction

Shichen Liu, Weikai Chen, Tianye Li, Hao Li

Rendering is the process of generating 2D images from 3D assets, simulated in a virtual environment, typically with a graphics pipeline. By inverting such renderer, one can think of a learning approach to predict a 3D shape from an input image. However, standard rendering pipelines involve a fundamental discretization step called rasterization, which prevents the rendering process to be differentiable, hence suitable for learning. We present the first non-parametric and truly differentiable rasterizer based on silhouettes. Our method enables unsupervised learning for high-quality 3D mesh reconstruction from a single image. We call our framework `soft rasterizer' as it provides an accurate soft approximation of the standard rasterizer. The key idea is to fuse the probabilistic contributions of all mesh triangles with respect to the rendered pixels. When combined with a mesh generator in a deep neural network, our soft rasterizer is able to generate an approximated silhouette of the generated polygon mesh in the forward pass. The rendering loss is back-propagated to supervise the mesh generation without the need of 3D training data. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art unsupervised techniques, both quantitatively and qualitatively. We also show that our soft rasterizer can achieve comparable results to the cutting-edge supervised learning method and in various cases even better ones, especially for real-world data.

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Autonomous visual inspection of large-scale infrastructures using aerial robots

Christoforos Kanellakis, Emil Fresk, Sina Sharif Mansouri, Dariusz Kominiak, George Nikolakopoulos

This article presents a novel framework for performing visual inspection around 3D infrastructures, by establishing a team of fully autonomous Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) with robust localization, planning and perception capabilities. The proposed aerial inspection system reaches high level of autonomy on a large scale, while pushing to the boundaries the real life deployment of aerial robotics. In the presented approach, the MAVs deployed for the inspection of the structure rely only on their onboard computer and sensory systems. The developed framework envisions a modular system, combining open research challenges in the fields of localization, path planning and mapping, with an overall capability for a fast on site deployment and a reduced execution time that can repeatably perform the inspection mission according to the operator needs. The architecture of the established system includes: 1) a geometry-based path planner for coverage of complex structures by multiple MAVs, 2) an accurate yet flexible localization component, which provides an accurate pose estimation for the MAVs by utilizing an Ultra Wideband fused inertial estimation scheme, and 3) visual data post-processing scheme for the 3D model building. The performance of the proposed framework has been experimentally demonstrated in multiple realistic outdoor field trials, all focusing on the challenging structure of a wind turbine as the main test case. The successful experimental results, depict the merits of the proposed autonomous navigation system as the enabling technology towards aerial robotic inspectors.

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Learning from Dialogue after Deployment: Feed Yourself, Chatbot!

Braden Hancock, Antoine Bordes, Pierre-Emmanuel Mazare, Jason Weston

The majority of conversations a dialogue agent sees over its lifetime occur after it has already been trained and deployed, leaving a vast store of potential training signal untapped. In this work, we propose the self-feeding chatbot, a dialogue agent with the ability to extract new training examples from the conversations it participates in. As our agent engages in conversation, it also estimates user satisfaction in its responses. When the conversation appears to be going well, the user's responses become new training examples to imitate. When the agent believes it has made a mistake, it asks for feedback; learning to predict the feedback that will be given improves the chatbot's dialogue abilities further. On the PersonaChat chit-chat dataset with over 131k training examples, we find that learning from dialogue with a self-feeding chatbot significantly improves performance, regardless of the amount of traditional supervision.

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DeepSDF: Learning Continuous Signed Distance Functions for Shape Representation

Jeong Joon Park, Peter Florence, Julian Straub, Richard Newcombe, Steven Lovegrove

Computer graphics, 3D computer vision and robotics communities have produced multiple approaches to representing 3D geometry for rendering and reconstruction. These provide trade-offs across fidelity, efficiency and compression capabilities. In this work, we introduce DeepSDF, a learned continuous Signed Distance Function (SDF) representation of a class of shapes that enables high quality shape representation, interpolation and completion from partial and noisy 3D input data. DeepSDF, like its classical counterpart, represents a shape's surface by a continuous volumetric field: the magnitude of a point in the field represents the distance to the surface boundary and the sign indicates whether the region is inside (-) or outside (+) of the shape, hence our representation implicitly encodes a shape's boundary as the zero-level-set of the learned function while explicitly representing the classification of space as being part of the shapes interior or not. While classical SDF's both in analytical or discretized voxel form typically represent the surface of a single shape, DeepSDF can represent an entire class of shapes. Furthermore, we show state-of-the-art performance for learned 3D shape representation and completion while reducing the model size by an order of magnitude compared with previous work.

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Eliminating all bad Local Minima from Loss Landscapes without even adding an Extra Unit

Jascha Sohl-Dickstein, Kenji Kawaguchi

Recent work has noted that all bad local minima can be removed from neural network loss landscapes, by adding a single unit with a particular parameterization. We show that the core technique from these papers can be used to remove all bad local minima from any loss landscape, so long as the global minimum has a loss of zero. This procedure does not require the addition of auxiliary units, or even that the loss be associated with a neural network. The method of action involves all bad local minima being converted into bad (non-local) minima at infinity in terms of auxiliary parameters.

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Variation Network: Learning High-level Attributes for Controlled Input Manipulation

Gaëtan Hadjeres

This paper presents the Variation Network (VarNet), a generative model providing means to manipulate the high-level attributes of a given input. The originality of our approach is that VarNet is not only capable of handling pre-defined attributes but can also learn the relevant attributes of the dataset by itself. These two settings can be easily combined which makes VarNet applicable for a wide variety of tasks. Further, VarNet has a sound probabilistic interpretation which grants us with a novel way to navigate in the latent spaces as well as means to control how the attributes are learned. We demonstrate experimentally that this model is capable of performing interesting input manipulation and that the learned attributes are relevant and interpretable.

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UAV-GESTURE: A Dataset for UAV Control and Gesture Recognition

Asanka G Perera, Yee Wei Law, Javaan Chahl

Current UAV-recorded datasets are mostly limited to action recognition and object tracking, whereas the gesture signals datasets were mostly recorded in indoor spaces. Currently, there is no outdoor recorded public video dataset for UAV commanding signals. Gesture signals can be effectively used with UAVs by leveraging the UAVs visual sensors and operational simplicity. To fill this gap and enable research in wider application areas, we present a UAV gesture signals dataset recorded in an outdoor setting. We selected 13 gestures suitable for basic UAV navigation and command from general aircraft handling and helicopter handling signals. We provide 119 high-definition video clips consisting of 37151 frames. The overall baseline gesture recognition performance computed using Pose-based Convolutional Neural Network (P-CNN) is 91.9 %. All the frames are annotated with body joints and gesture classes in order to extend the dataset's applicability to a wider research area including gesture recognition, action recognition, human pose recognition and situation awareness.

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DPPNet: Approximating Determinantal Point Processes with Deep Networks

Zelda Mariet, Yaniv Ovadia, Jasper Snoek

Determinantal Point Processes (DPPs) provide an elegant and versatile way to sample sets of items that balance the point-wise quality with the set-wise diversity of selected items. For this reason, they have gained prominence in many machine learning applications that rely on subset selection. However, sampling from a DPP over a ground set of size $N$ is a costly operation, requiring in general an $O(N^3)$ preprocessing cost and an $O(Nk^3)$ sampling cost for subsets of size $k$. We approach this problem by introducing DPPNets: generative deep models that produce DPP-like samples for arbitrary ground sets. We develop an inhibitive attention mechanism based on transformer networks that captures a notion of dissimilarity between feature vectors. We show theoretically that such an approximation is sensible as it maintains the guarantees of inhibition or dissimilarity that makes DPPs so powerful and unique. Empirically, we demonstrate that samples from our model receive high likelihood under the more expensive DPP alternative.

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Massively Multilingual Sentence Embeddings for Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Transfer and Beyond

Mikel Artetxe, Holger Schwenk

We introduce an architecture to learn joint multilingual sentence representations for 93 languages, belonging to more than 30 different language families and written in 28 different scripts. Our system uses a single BiLSTM encoder with a shared BPE vocabulary for all languages, which is coupled with an auxiliary decoder and trained on publicly available parallel corpora. This enables us to learn a classifier on top of the resulting sentence embeddings using English annotated data only, and transfer it to any of the 93 languages without any modification. Our approach sets a new state-of-the-art on zero-shot cross-lingual natural language inference for all the 14 languages in the XNLI dataset but one. We also achieve very competitive results in cross-lingual document classification (MLDoc dataset). Our sentence embeddings are also strong at parallel corpus mining, establishing a new state-of-the-art in the BUCC shared task for 3 of its 4 language pairs. Finally, we introduce a new test set of aligned sentences in 122 languages based on the Tatoeba corpus, and show that our sentence embeddings obtain strong results in multilingual similarity search even for low-resource languages. Our PyTorch implementation, pre-trained encoder and the multilingual test set will be freely available.

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The Design and Implementation of XiaoIce, an Empathetic Social Chatbot

Li Zhou, Jianfeng Gao, Di Li, Heung-Yeung Shum

This paper describes the development of the Microsoft XiaoIce system, the most popular social chatbot in the world. XiaoIce is uniquely designed as an AI companion with an emotional connection to satisfy the human need for communication, affection, and social belonging. We take into account both intelligent quotient (IQ) and emotional quotient (EQ) in system design, cast human-machine social chat as decision-making over Markov Decision Processes (MDPs), and optimize XiaoIce for long-term user engagement, measured in expected Conversation-turns Per Session (CPS). We detail the system architecture and key components including dialogue manager, core chat, skills, and an empathetic computing module. We show how XiaoIce dynamically recognizes human feelings and states, understands user intents, and responds to user needs throughout long conversations. Since the release in 2014, XiaoIce has communicated with over 660 million users and succeeded in establishing long-term relationships with many of them. Analysis of large-scale online logs shows that XiaoIce has achieved an average CPS of 23, which is significantly higher than that of other chatbots and even human conversations.

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What are the biases in my word embedding?

Nathaniel Swinger, Maria De-Arteaga, Neil Thomas Heffernan IV, Mark DM Leiserson, Adam Tauman Kalai

This paper presents an algorithm for enumerating biases in word embeddings. The algorithm exposes a large number of offensive associations related to sensitive features such as race and gender on publicly available embeddings, including a supposedly "debiased" embedding. These embedded biases are concerning in light of the widespread use of word embeddings. The associations are identified by geometric patterns in word embeddings that run parallel between people's names and common lower-case words and phrases. The algorithm is highly unsupervised: it does not even require the sensitive groups (such as gender or race) to be pre-specified. This is desirable because it may not always be easy to identify all vulnerable groups a priori, and because it makes it easier to identify biases against intersectional groups, which depend on combinations of sensitive features. The inputs to our algorithm are a list of target tokens, e.g. names, and a word embedding, and the outputs are a number of Word Embedding Association Tests (WEATs) that capture various biases present in the data. We illustrate the utility of our approach on publicly available word embeddings and lists of names, and evaluate its output using crowdsourcing. We also show how removing names may not remove potential proxy bias.

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Bayesian Optimization in AlphaGo

Yutian Chen, Aja Huang, Ziyu Wang, Ioannis Antonoglou, Julian Schrittwieser, David Silver, Nando de Freitas

During the development of AlphaGo, its many hyper-parameters were tuned with Bayesian optimization multiple times. This automatic tuning process resulted in substantial improvements in playing strength. For example, prior to the match with Lee Sedol, we tuned the latest AlphaGo agent and this improved its win-rate from 50% to 66.5% in self-play games. This tuned version was deployed in the final match. Of course, since we tuned AlphaGo many times during its development cycle, the compounded contribution was even higher than this percentage. It is our hope that this brief case study will be of interest to Go fans, and also provide Bayesian optimization practitioners with some insights and inspiration.

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