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We present a content-based automatic music tagging algorithm using fully convolutional neural networks (FCNs). We evaluate different architectures consisting of 2D convolutional layers and subsampling layers only. In the experiments, we measure the AUC-ROC scores of the architectures with different complexities and input types using the MagnaTagATune dataset, where a 4-layer architecture shows state-of-the-art performance with mel-spectrogram input. Furthermore, we evaluated the performances of the architectures with varying the number of layers on a larger dataset (Million Song Dataset), and found that deeper models outperformed the 4-layer architecture. The experiments show that mel-spectrogram is an effective time-frequency representation for automatic tagging and that more complex models benefit from more training data.

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In a traditional convolutional layer, the learned filters stay fixed after training. In contrast, we introduce a new framework, the Dynamic Filter Network, where filters are generated dynamically conditioned on an input. We show that this architecture is a powerful one, with increased flexibility thanks to its adaptive nature, yet without an excessive increase in the number of model parameters. A wide variety of filtering operations can be learned this way, including local spatial transformations, but also others like selective (de)blurring or adaptive feature extraction. Moreover, multiple such layers can be combined, e.g. in a recurrent architecture. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the dynamic filter network on the tasks of video and stereo prediction, and reach state-of-the-art performance on the moving MNIST dataset with a much smaller model. By visualizing the learned filters, we illustrate that the network has picked up flow information by only looking at unlabelled training data. This suggests that the network can be used to pretrain networks for various supervised tasks in an unsupervised way, like optical flow and depth estimation.

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Deep neural networks (DNNs) have demonstrated state-of-the-art results on many pattern recognition tasks, especially vision classification problems. Understanding the inner workings of such computational brains is both fascinating basic science that is interesting in its own right - similar to why we study the human brain - and will enable researchers to further improve DNNs. One path to understanding how a neural network functions internally is to study what each of its neurons has learned to detect. One such method is called activation maximization (AM), which synthesizes an input (e.g. an image) that highly activates a neuron. Here we dramatically improve the qualitative state of the art of activation maximization by harnessing a powerful, learned prior: a deep generator network (DGN). The algorithm (1) generates qualitatively state-of-the-art synthetic images that look almost real, (2) reveals the features learned by each neuron in an interpretable way, (3) generalizes well to new datasets and somewhat well to different network architectures without requiring the prior to be relearned, and (4) can be considered as a high-quality generative method (in this case, by generating novel, creative, interesting, recognizable images).

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Unsupervised learning of probabilistic models is a central yet challenging problem in machine learning. Specifically, designing models with tractable learning, sampling, inference and evaluation is crucial in solving this task. We extend the space of such models using real-valued non-volume preserving (real NVP) transformations, a set of powerful invertible and learnable transformations, resulting in an unsupervised learning algorithm with exact log-likelihood computation, exact sampling, exact inference of latent variables, and an interpretable latent space. We demonstrate its ability to model natural images on four datasets through sampling, log-likelihood evaluation and latent variable manipulations.

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TensorFlow is a machine learning system that operates at large scale and in heterogeneous environments. TensorFlow uses dataflow graphs to represent computation, shared state, and the operations that mutate that state. It maps the nodes of a dataflow graph across many machines in a cluster, and within a machine across multiple computational devices, including multicore CPUs, general-purpose GPUs, and custom designed ASICs known as Tensor Processing Units (TPUs). This architecture gives flexibility to the application developer: whereas in previous "parameter server" designs the management of shared state is built into the system, TensorFlow enables developers to experiment with novel optimizations and training algorithms. TensorFlow supports a variety of applications, with particularly strong support for training and inference on deep neural networks. Several Google services use TensorFlow in production, we have released it as an open-source project, and it has become widely used for machine learning research. In this paper, we describe the TensorFlow dataflow model in contrast to existing systems, and demonstrate the compelling performance that TensorFlow achieves for several real-world applications.

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While great strides have been made in using deep learning algorithms to solve supervised learning tasks, the problem of unsupervised learning - leveraging unlabeled examples to learn about the structure of a domain - remains a difficult unsolved challenge. Here, we explore prediction of future frames in a video sequence as an unsupervised learning rule for learning about the structure of the visual world. We describe a predictive neural network ("PredNet") architecture that is inspired by the concept of "predictive coding" from the neuroscience literature. These networks learn to predict future frames in a video sequence, with each layer in the network making local predictions and only forwarding deviations from those predictions to subsequent network layers. We show that these networks are able to robustly learn to predict the movement of synthetic (rendered) objects, and that in doing so, the networks learn internal representations that are useful for decoding latent object parameters (e.g. pose) that support object recognition with fewer training views. We also show that these networks can scale to complex natural image streams (car-mounted camera videos), capturing key aspects of both egocentric movement and the movement of objects in the visual scene, and generalizing across video datasets. These results suggest that prediction represents a powerful framework for unsupervised learning, allowing for implicit learning of object and scene structure.

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We introduce a design strategy for neural network macro-architecture based on self-similarity. Repeated application of a single expansion rule generates an extremely deep network whose structural layout is precisely a truncated fractal. Such a network contains interacting subpaths of different lengths, but does not include any pass-through connections: every internal signal is transformed by a filter and nonlinearity before being seen by subsequent layers. This property stands in stark contrast to the current approach of explicitly structuring very deep networks so that training is a residual learning problem. Our experiments demonstrate that residual representation is not fundamental to the success of extremely deep convolutional neural networks. A fractal design achieves an error rate of 22.85% on CIFAR-100, matching the state-of-the-art held by residual networks. Fractal networks exhibit intriguing properties beyond their high performance. They can be regarded as a computationally efficient implicit union of subnetworks of every depth. We explore consequences for training, touching upon connection with student-teacher behavior, and, most importantly, demonstrating the ability to extract high-performance fixed-depth subnetworks. To facilitate this latter task, we develop drop-path, a natural extension of dropout, to regularize co-adaptation of subpaths in fractal architectures. With such regularization, fractal networks exhibit an anytime property: shallow subnetworks provide a quick answer, while deeper subnetworks, with higher latency, provide a more accurate answer.

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We propose an interactive multimodal framework for language learning. Instead of being passively exposed to large amounts of natural text, our learners (implemented as feed-forward neural networks) engage in cooperative referential games starting from a tabula rasa setup, and thus develop their own language from the need to communicate in order to succeed at the game. Preliminary experiments provide promising results, but also suggest that it is important to ensure that agents trained in this way do not develop an adhoc communication code only effective for the game they are playing

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In this paper, we prove a conjecture published in 1989 and also partially address an open problem announced at the Conference on Learning Theory (COLT) 2015. With no unrealistic assumption, we first prove the following statements for the squared loss function of deep linear neural networks with any depth and any widths: 1) the function is non-convex and non-concave, 2) every local minimum is a global minimum, 3) every critical point that is not a global minimum is a saddle point, and 4) there exist "bad" saddle points (where the Hessian has no negative eigenvalue) for the deeper networks (with more than three layers), whereas there is no bad saddle point for the shallow networks (with three layers). Moreover, for deep nonlinear neural networks, we prove the same four statements via a reduction to a deep linear model under the independence assumption adopted from recent work. As a result, we present an instance, for which we can answer the following question: how difficult is it to directly train a deep model in theory? It is more difficult than the classical machine learning models (because of the non-convexity), but not too difficult (because of the nonexistence of poor local minima). Furthermore, the mathematically proven existence of bad saddle points for deeper models would suggest a possible open problem. We note that even though we have advanced the theoretical foundations of deep learning and non-convex optimization, there is still a gap between theory and practice.

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There are families of neural networks that can learn to compute any function, provided sufficient training data. However, given that in practice training data is scarce for all but a small set of problems, a core question is how to incorporate prior knowledge into a model. Here we consider the case of prior procedural knowledge, such as knowing the overall recursive structure of a sequence transduction program or the fact that a program will likely use arithmetic operations on real numbers to solve a task. To this end we present a differentiable interpreter for the programming language Forth. Through a neural implementation of the dual stack machine that underlies Forth, programmers can write program sketches with slots that can be filled with behaviour trained from program input-output data. As the program interpreter is end-to-end differentiable, we can optimize this behaviour directly through gradient descent techniques on user specified objectives, and also integrate the program into any larger neural computation graph. We show empirically that our interpreter is able to effectively leverage different levels of prior program structure and learn complex transduction tasks such as sequence sorting or addition with substantially less data and better generalisation over problem sizes. In addition, we introduce neural program optimisations based on symbolic computation and parallel branching that lead to significant speed improvements.

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Modern computer vision algorithms typically require expensive data acquisition and accurate manual labeling. In this work, we instead leverage the recent progress in computer graphics to generate fully labeled, dynamic, and photo-realistic proxy virtual worlds. We propose an efficient real-to-virtual world cloning method, and validate our approach by building and publicly releasing a new video dataset, called Virtual KITTI (see http://www.xrce.xerox.com/Research-Development/Computer-Vision/Proxy-Virtual-Worlds), automatically labeled with accurate ground truth for object detection, tracking, scene and instance segmentation, depth, and optical flow. We provide quantitative experimental evidence suggesting that (i) modern deep learning algorithms pre-trained on real data behave similarly in real and virtual worlds, and (ii) pre-training on virtual data improves performance. As the gap between real and virtual worlds is small, virtual worlds enable measuring the impact of various weather and imaging conditions on recognition performance, all other things being equal. We show these factors may affect drastically otherwise high-performing deep models for tracking.

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We introduce Deep Variational Bayes Filters (DVBF), a new method for unsupervised learning of latent Markovian state space models. Leveraging recent advances in Stochastic Gradient Variational Bayes, DVBF can overcome intractable inference distributions by means of variational inference. Thus, it can handle highly nonlinear input data with temporal and spatial dependencies such as image sequences without domain knowledge. Our experiments show that enabling backpropagation through transitions enforces state space assumptions and significantly improves information content of the latent embedding. This also enables realistic long-term prediction.

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In this work, we introduce a novel interpretation of residual networks showing they are exponential ensembles. This observation is supported by a large-scale lesion study that demonstrates they behave just like ensembles at test time. Subsequently, we perform an analysis showing these ensembles mostly consist of networks that are each relatively shallow. For example, contrary to our expectations, most of the gradient in a residual network with 110 layers comes from an ensemble of very short networks, i.e., only 10-34 layers deep. This suggests that in addition to describing neural networks in terms of width and depth, there is a third dimension: multiplicity, the size of the implicit ensemble. Ultimately, residual networks do not resolve the vanishing gradient problem by preserving gradient flow throughout the entire depth of the network - rather, they avoid the problem simply by ensembling many short networks together. This insight reveals that depth is still an open research question and invites the exploration of the related notion of multiplicity.

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Despite recent breakthroughs in the applications of deep neural networks, one setting that presents a persistent challenge is that of "one-shot learning." Traditional gradient-based networks require a lot of data to learn, often through extensive iterative training. When new data is encountered, the models must inefficiently relearn their parameters to adequately incorporate the new information without catastrophic interference. Architectures with augmented memory capacities, such as Neural Turing Machines (NTMs), offer the ability to quickly encode and retrieve new information, and hence can potentially obviate the downsides of conventional models. Here, we demonstrate the ability of a memory-augmented neural network to rapidly assimilate new data, and leverage this data to make accurate predictions after only a few samples. We also introduce a new method for accessing an external memory that focuses on memory content, unlike previous methods that additionally use memory location-based focusing mechanisms.

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Automatic synthesis of realistic images from text would be interesting and useful, but current AI systems are still far from this goal. However, in recent years generic and powerful recurrent neural network architectures have been developed to learn discriminative text feature representations. Meanwhile, deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (GANs) have begun to generate highly compelling images of specific categories, such as faces, album covers, and room interiors. In this work, we develop a novel deep architecture and GAN formulation to effectively bridge these advances in text and image model- ing, translating visual concepts from characters to pixels. We demonstrate the capability of our model to generate plausible images of birds and flowers from detailed text descriptions.

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Numerous important problems can be framed as learning from graph data. We propose a framework for learning convolutional neural networks for arbitrary graphs. These graphs may be undirected, directed, and with both discrete and continuous node and edge attributes. Analogous to image-based convolutional networks that operate on locally connected regions of the input, we present a general approach to extracting locally connected regions from graphs. Using established benchmark data sets, we demonstrate that the learned feature representations are competitive with state of the art graph kernels and that their computation is highly efficient.

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We present a study on two key characteristics of human syntactic annotations: anchoring and agreement. Anchoring is a well known cognitive bias in human decision making, where judgments are drawn towards pre-existing values. We study the influence of anchoring on a standard approach to creation of syntactic resources where syntactic annotations are obtained via human editing of tagger and parser output. Our experiments demonstrate a clear anchoring effect and reveal unwanted consequences, including overestimation of parsing performance and lower quality of annotations in comparison with human-based annotations. Using sentences from the Penn Treebank WSJ, we also report the first systematically obtained inter-annotator agreement estimates for English dependency parsing. Our agreement results control for anchoring bias, and are consequential in that they are on par with state of the art parsing performance for English. We discuss the impact of our findings on strategies for future annotation efforts and parser evaluations.

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Mental illness is one of the most pressing public health issues of our time. While counseling and psychotherapy can be effective treatments, our knowledge about how to conduct successful counseling conversations has been limited due to lack of large-scale data with labeled outcomes of the conversations. In this paper, we present a large-scale, quantitative study on the discourse of text-message-based counseling conversations. We develop a set of novel computational discourse analysis methods to measure how various linguistic aspects of conversations are correlated with conversation outcomes. Applying techniques such as sequence-based conversation models, language model comparisons, message clustering, and psycholinguistics-inspired word frequency analyses, we discover actionable conversation strategies that are associated with better conversation outcomes.

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Audio Description (AD) provides linguistic descriptions of movies and allows visually impaired people to follow a movie along with their peers. Such descriptions are by design mainly visual and thus naturally form an interesting data source for computer vision and computational linguistics. In this work we propose a novel dataset which contains transcribed ADs, which are temporally aligned to full length movies. In addition we also collected and aligned movie scripts used in prior work and compare the two sources of descriptions. In total the Large Scale Movie Description Challenge (LSMDC) contains a parallel corpus of 118,114 sentences and video clips from 202 movies. First we characterize the dataset by benchmarking different approaches for generating video descriptions. Comparing ADs to scripts, we find that ADs are indeed more visual and describe precisely what is shown rather than what should happen according to the scripts created prior to movie production. Furthermore, we present and compare the results of several teams who participated in a challenge organized in the context of the workshop "Describing and Understanding Video & The Large Scale Movie Description Challenge (LSMDC)", at ICCV 2015.

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The recent advances in deep neural networks have led to effective vision-based reinforcement learning methods that have been employed to obtain human-level controllers in Atari 2600 games from pixel data. Atari 2600 games, however, do not resemble real-world tasks since they involve non-realistic 2D environments and the third-person perspective. Here, we propose a novel test-bed platform for reinforcement learning research from raw visual information which employs the first-person perspective in a semi-realistic 3D world. The software, called ViZDoom, is based on the classical first-person shooter video game, Doom. It allows developing bots that play the game using the screen buffer. ViZDoom is lightweight, fast, and highly customizable via a convenient mechanism of user scenarios. In the experimental part, we test the environment by trying to learn bots for two scenarios: a basic move-and-shoot task and a more complex maze-navigation problem. Using convolutional deep neural networks with Q-learning and experience replay, for both scenarios, we were able to train competent bots, which exhibit human-like behaviors. The results confirm the utility of ViZDoom as an AI research platform and imply that visual reinforcement learning in 3D realistic first-person perspective environments is feasible.

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