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Papers


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Understanding deep learning requires rethinking generalization

Chiyuan Zhang, Samy Bengio, Moritz Hardt, Benjamin Recht, Oriol Vinyals

Despite their massive size, successful deep artificial neural networks can exhibit a remarkably small difference between training and test performance. Conventional wisdom attributes small generalization error either to properties of the model family, or to the regularization techniques used during training. Through extensive systematic experiments, we show how these traditional approaches fail to explain why large neural networks generalize well in practice. Specifically, our experiments establish that state-of-the-art convolutional networks for image classification trained with stochastic gradient methods easily fit a random labeling of the training data. This phenomenon is qualitatively unaffected by explicit regularization, and occurs even if we replace the true images by completely unstructured random noise. We corroborate these experimental findings with a theoretical construction showing that simple depth two neural networks already have perfect finite sample expressivity as soon as the number of parameters exceeds the number of data points as it usually does in practice. We interpret our experimental findings by comparison with traditional models.

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Ultimate tensorization: compressing convolutional and FC layers alike

Timur Garipov, Dmitry Podoprikhin, Alexander Novikov, Dmitry Vetrov

Convolutional neural networks excel in image recognition tasks, but this comes at the cost of high computational and memory complexity. To tackle this problem, [1] developed a tensor factorization framework to compress fully-connected layers. In this paper, we focus on compressing convolutional layers. We show that while the direct application of the tensor framework [1] to the 4-dimensional kernel of convolution does compress the layer, we can do better. We reshape the convolutional kernel into a tensor of higher order and factorize it. We combine the proposed approach with the previous work to compress both convolutional and fully-connected layers of a network and achieve 80x network compression rate with 1.1% accuracy drop on the CIFAR-10 dataset.

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Low Data Drug Discovery with One-shot Learning

Han Altae-Tran, Bharath Ramsundar, Aneesh S. Pappu, Vijay Pande

Recent advances in machine learning have made significant contributions to drug discovery. Deep neural networks in particular have been demonstrated to provide significant boosts in predictive power when inferring the properties and activities of small-molecule compounds. However, the applicability of these techniques has been limited by the requirement for large amounts of training data. In this work, we demonstrate how one-shot learning can be used to significantly lower the amounts of data required to make meaningful predictions in drug discovery applications. We introduce a new architecture, the residual LSTM embedding, that, when combined with graph convolutional neural networks, significantly improves the ability to learn meaningful distance metrics over small-molecules. We open source all models introduced in this work as part of DeepChem, an open-source framework for deep-learning in drug discovery.

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Sequence Tutor: Conservative Fine-Tuning of Sequence Generation Models with KL-control

Natasha Jaques, Shixiang Gu, Dzmitry Bahdanau, Jose Miguel Hernandez Lobato, Richard E. Turner, Douglas Eck

This paper proposes a general method for improving the structure and quality of sequences generated by a recurrent neural network (RNN), while maintaining information originally learned from data, as well as sample diversity. An RNN is first pre-trained on data using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), and the probability distribution over the next token in the sequence learned by this model is treated as a prior policy. Another RNN is then trained using reinforcement learning (RL) to generate higher-quality outputs that account for domain-specific incentives while retaining proximity to the prior policy of the MLE RNN. To formalize this objective, we derive novel off-policy RL methods for RNNs from KL-control. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on two applications; 1) generating novel musical melodies, and 2) computational molecular generation. For both problems, we show that the proposed method improves the desired properties and structure of the generated sequences, while maintaining information learned from data.

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RL$^2$: Fast Reinforcement Learning via Slow Reinforcement Learning

Yan Duan, John Schulman, Xi Chen, Peter L. Bartlett, Ilya Sutskever, Pieter Abbeel

Deep reinforcement learning (deep RL) has been successful in learning sophisticated behaviors automatically; however, the learning process requires a huge number of trials. In contrast, animals can learn new tasks in just a few trials, benefiting from their prior knowledge about the world. This paper seeks to bridge this gap. Rather than designing a "fast" reinforcement learning algorithm, we propose to represent it as a recurrent neural network (RNN) and learn it from data. In our proposed method, RL$^2$, the algorithm is encoded in the weights of the RNN, which are learned slowly through a general-purpose ("slow") RL algorithm. The RNN receives all information a typical RL algorithm would receive, including observations, actions, rewards, and termination flags; and it retains its state across episodes in a given Markov Decision Process (MDP). The activations of the RNN store the state of the "fast" RL algorithm on the current (previously unseen) MDP. We evaluate RL$^2$ experimentally on both small-scale and large-scale problems. On the small-scale side, we train it to solve randomly generated multi-arm bandit problems and finite MDPs. After RL$^2$ is trained, its performance on new MDPs is close to human-designed algorithms with optimality guarantees. On the large-scale side, we test RL$^2$ on a vision-based navigation task and show that it scales up to high-dimensional problems.

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Multispectral Deep Neural Networks for Pedestrian Detection

Jingjing Liu, Shaoting Zhang, Shu Wang, Dimitris N. Metaxas

Multispectral pedestrian detection is essential for around-the-clock applications, e.g., surveillance and autonomous driving. We deeply analyze Faster R-CNN for multispectral pedestrian detection task and then model it into a convolutional network (ConvNet) fusion problem. Further, we discover that ConvNet-based pedestrian detectors trained by color or thermal images separately provide complementary information in discriminating human instances. Thus there is a large potential to improve pedestrian detection by using color and thermal images in DNNs simultaneously. We carefully design four ConvNet fusion architectures that integrate two-branch ConvNets on different DNNs stages, all of which yield better performance compared with the baseline detector. Our experimental results on KAIST pedestrian benchmark show that the Halfway Fusion model that performs fusion on the middle-level convolutional features outperforms the baseline method by 11% and yields a missing rate 3.5% lower than the other proposed architectures.

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Unsupervised Cross-Domain Image Generation

Yaniv Taigman, Adam Polyak, Lior Wolf

We study the problem of transferring a sample in one domain to an analog sample in another domain. Given two related domains, S and T, we would like to learn a generative function G that maps an input sample from S to the domain T, such that the output of a given function f, which accepts inputs in either domains, would remain unchanged. Other than the function f, the training data is unsupervised and consist of a set of samples from each domain. The Domain Transfer Network (DTN) we present employs a compound loss function that includes a multiclass GAN loss, an f-constancy component, and a regularizing component that encourages G to map samples from T to themselves. We apply our method to visual domains including digits and face images and demonstrate its ability to generate convincing novel images of previously unseen entities, while preserving their identity.

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Lifelong Perceptual Programming By Example

Alexander L. Gaunt, Marc Brockschmidt, Nate Kushman, Daniel Tarlow

We introduce and develop solutions for the problem of Lifelong Perceptual Programming By Example (LPPBE). The problem is to induce a series of programs that require understanding perceptual data like images or text. LPPBE systems learn from weak supervision (input-output examples) and incrementally construct a shared library of components that grows and improves as more tasks are solved. Methodologically, we extend differentiable interpreters to operate on perceptual data and to share components across tasks. Empirically we show that this leads to a lifelong learning system that transfers knowledge to new tasks more effectively than baselines, and the performance on earlier tasks continues to improve even as the system learns on new, different tasks.

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Neural Functional Programming

John K. Feser, Marc Brockschmidt, Alexander L. Gaunt, Daniel Tarlow

We discuss a range of modeling choices that arise when constructing an end-to-end differentiable programming language suitable for learning programs from input-output examples. Taking cues from programming languages research, we study the effect of memory allocation schemes, immutable data, type systems, and built-in control-flow structures on the success rate of learning algorithms. We build a range of models leading up to a simple differentiable functional programming language. Our empirical evaluation shows that this language allows to learn far more programs than existing baselines.

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Neural Machine Translation with Reconstruction

Zhaopeng Tu, Yang Liu, Lifeng Shang, Xiaohua Liu, Hang Li

Although end-to-end Neural Machine Translation (NMT) has achieved remarkable progress in the past two years, it suffers from a major drawback: translations generated by NMT systems often lack of adequacy. It has been widely observed that NMT tends to repeatedly translate some source words while mistakenly ignoring other words. To alleviate this problem, we propose a novel encoder-decoder-reconstructor framework for NMT. The reconstructor, incorporated into the NMT model, manages to reconstruct the input source sentence from the hidden layer of the output target sentence, to ensure that the information in the source side is transformed to the target side as much as possible. Experiments show that the proposed framework significantly improves the adequacy of NMT output and achieves superior translation result over state-of-the-art NMT and statistical MT systems.

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End-to-end Optimized Image Compression

Johannes Ballé, Valero Laparra, Eero P. Simoncelli

We describe an image compression system, consisting of a nonlinear encoding transformation, a uniform quantizer, and a nonlinear decoding transformation. Like many deep neural network architectures, the transforms consist of layers of convolutional linear filters and nonlinear activation functions, but we use a joint nonlinearity that implements a form of local gain control, inspired by those used to model biological neurons. Using a variant of stochastic gradient descent, we jointly optimize the system for rate-distortion performance over a database of training images, introducing a continuous proxy for the discontinuous loss function arising from the quantizer. The relaxed optimization problem resembles that of variational autoencoders, except that it must operate at any point along the rate-distortion curve, whereas the optimization of generative models aims only to minimize entropy of the data under the model. Across an independent database of test images, we find that the optimized coder exhibits significantly better rate-distortion performance than the standard JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression systems, as well as a dramatic improvement in visual quality of compressed images.

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Boosting Image Captioning with Attributes

Ting Yao, Yingwei Pan, Yehao Li, Zhaofan Qiu, Tao Mei

Automatically describing an image with a natural language has been an emerging challenge in both fields of computer vision and natural language processing. In this paper, we present Long Short-Term Memory with Attributes (LSTM-A) - a novel architecture that integrates attributes into the successful Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) plus Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) image captioning framework, by training them in an end-to-end manner. To incorporate attributes, we construct variants of architectures by feeding image representations and attributes into RNNs in different ways to explore the mutual but also fuzzy relationship between them. Extensive experiments are conducted on COCO image captioning dataset and our framework achieves superior results when compared to state-of-the-art deep models. Most remarkably, we obtain METEOR/CIDEr-D of 25.2%/98.6% on testing data of widely used and publicly available splits in (Karpathy & Fei-Fei, 2015) when extracting image representations by GoogleNet and achieve to date top-1 performance on COCO captioning Leaderboard.

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Dynamic Coattention Networks For Question Answering

Caiming Xiong, Victor Zhong, Richard Socher

Several deep learning models have been proposed for question answering. However, due to their single-pass nature, they have no way to recover from local maxima corresponding to incorrect answers. To address this problem, we introduce the Dynamic Coattention Network (DCN) for question answering. The DCN first fuses co-dependent representations of the question and the document in order to focus on relevant parts of both. Then a dynamic pointing decoder iterates over potential answer spans. This iterative procedure enables the model to recover from initial local maxima corresponding to incorrect answers. On the Stanford question answering dataset, a single DCN model improves the previous state of the art from 71.0% F1 to 75.9%, while a DCN ensemble obtains 80.4% F1.

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LipNet: Sentence-level Lipreading

Yannis M. Assael, Brendan Shillingford, Shimon Whiteson, Nando de Freitas

Lipreading is the task of decoding text from the movement of a speaker's mouth. Traditional approaches separated the problem into two stages: designing or learning visual features, and prediction. More recent deep lipreading approaches are end-to-end trainable (Wand et al., 2016; Chung & Zisserman, 2016a). All existing works, however, perform only word classification, not sentence-level sequence prediction. Studies have shown that human lipreading performance increases for longer words (Easton & Basala, 1982), indicating the importance of features capturing temporal context in an ambiguous communication channel. Motivated by this observation, we present LipNet, a model that maps a variable-length sequence of video frames to text, making use of spatiotemporal convolutions, an LSTM recurrent network, and the connectionist temporal classification loss, trained entirely end-to-end. To the best of our knowledge, LipNet is the first lipreading model to operate at sentence-level, using a single end-to-end speaker-independent deep model to simultaneously learn spatiotemporal visual features and a sequence model. On the GRID corpus, LipNet achieves 93.4% accuracy, outperforming experienced human lipreaders and the previous 79.6% state-of-the-art accuracy.

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A Joint Many-Task Model: Growing a Neural Network for Multiple NLP Tasks

Kazuma Hashimoto, Caiming Xiong, Yoshimasa Tsuruoka, Richard Socher

Transfer and multi-task learning have traditionally focused on either a single source-target pair or very few, similar tasks. Ideally, the linguistic levels of morphology, syntax and semantics would benefit each other by being trained in a single model. We introduce such a joint many-task model together with a strategy for successively growing its depth to solve increasingly complex tasks. All layers include shortcut connections to both word representations and lower-level task predictions. We use a simple regularization term to allow for optimizing all model weights to improve one task's loss without exhibiting catastrophic interference of the other tasks. Our single end-to-end trainable model obtains state-of-the-art results on chunking, dependency parsing, semantic relatedness and textual entailment. It also performs competitively on POS tagging. Our dependency parsing layer relies only on a single feed-forward pass and does not require a beam search.

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Quasi-Recurrent Neural Networks

James Bradbury, Stephen Merity, Caiming Xiong, Richard Socher

Recurrent neural networks are a powerful tool for modeling sequential data, but the dependence of each timestep's computation on the previous timestep's output limits parallelism and makes RNNs unwieldy for very long sequences. We introduce quasi-recurrent neural networks (QRNNs), an approach to neural sequence modeling that alternates convolutional layers, which apply in parallel across timesteps, and a minimalist recurrent pooling function that applies in parallel across channels. Despite lacking trainable recurrent layers, stacked QRNNs have better predictive accuracy than stacked LSTMs of the same hidden size. Due to their increased parallelism, they are up to 16 times faster at train and test time. Experiments on language modeling, sentiment classification, and character-level neural machine translation demonstrate these advantages and underline the viability of QRNNs as a basic building block for a variety of sequence tasks.

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Neuromorphic Silicon Photonics

Alexander N. Tait, Ellen Zhou, Thomas Ferreira de Lima, Allie X. Wu, Mitchell A. Nahmias, Bhavin J. Shastri, Paul R. Prucnal

We report first observations of an integrated analog photonic network, in which connections are configured by microring weight banks, as well as the first use of electro-optic modulators as photonic neurons. A mathematical isomorphism between the silicon photonic circuit and a continuous neural model is demonstrated through dynamical bifurcation analysis. Exploiting this isomorphism, existing neural engineering tools can be adapted to silicon photonic information processing systems. A 49-node silicon photonic neural network programmed using a "neural compiler" is simulated and predicted to outperform a conventional approach 1,960-fold in a toy differential system emulation task. Photonic neural networks leveraging silicon photonic platforms could access new regimes of ultrafast information processing for radio, control, and scientific computing.

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Improving Stochastic Gradient Descent with Feedback

Jayanth Koushik, Hiroaki Hayashi

In this paper we propose a simple and efficient method for improving stochastic gradient descent methods by using feedback from the objective function. The method tracks the relative changes in the objective function with a running average, and uses it to adaptively tune the learning rate in stochastic gradient descent. We specifically apply this idea to modify Adam, a popular algorithm for training deep neural networks. We conduct experiments to compare the resulting algorithm, which we call Eve, with state of the art methods used for training deep learning models. We train CNNs for image classification, and RNNs for language modeling and question answering. Our experiments show that Eve outperforms all other algorithms on these benchmark tasks. We also analyze the behavior of the feedback mechanism during the training process.

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Tying Word Vectors and Word Classifiers: A Loss Framework for Language Modeling

Hakan Inan, Khashayar Khosravi, Richard Socher

Recurrent neural networks have been very successful at predicting sequences of words in tasks such as language modeling. However, all such models are based on the conventional classification framework, where model is trained against one-hot targets, and each word is represented both as an input and as an output in isolation. This causes inefficiencies in learning both in terms of utilizing all of the information and in terms of the number of parameters needed to train. We introduce a novel theoretical framework that facilitates better learning in language modeling, and show that our framework leads to tying together the input embedding and the output projection matrices, greatly reducing the number of trainable variables. Our LSTM model lowers the state of the art word-level perplexity on the Penn Treebank to 68.5.

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Assessing the Ability of LSTMs to Learn Syntax-Sensitive Dependencies

Tal Linzen, Emmanuel Dupoux, Yoav Goldberg

The success of long short-term memory (LSTM) neural networks in language processing is typically attributed to their ability to capture long-distance statistical regularities. Linguistic regularities are often sensitive to syntactic structure; can such dependencies be captured by LSTMs, which do not have explicit structural representations? We begin addressing this question using number agreement in English subject-verb dependencies. We probe the architecture's grammatical competence both using training objectives with an explicit grammatical target (number prediction, grammaticality judgments) and using language models. In the strongly supervised settings, the LSTM achieved very high overall accuracy (less than 1% errors), but errors increased when sequential and structural information conflicted. The frequency of such errors rose sharply in the language-modeling setting. We conclude that LSTMs can capture a non-trivial amount of grammatical structure given targeted supervision, but stronger architectures may be required to further reduce errors; furthermore, the language modeling signal is insufficient for capturing syntax-sensitive dependencies, and should be supplemented with more direct supervision if such dependencies need to be captured.

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