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Identity Matters in Deep Learning

Moritz Hardt, Tengyu Ma

An emerging design principle in deep learning is that each layer of a deep artificial neural network should be able to easily express the identity transformation. This idea not only motivated various normalization techniques, such as \emph{batch normalization}, but was also key to the immense success of \emph{residual networks}. In this work, we put the principle of \emph{identity parameterization} on a more solid theoretical footing alongside further empirical progress. We first give a strikingly simple proof that arbitrarily deep linear residual networks have no spurious local optima. The same result for linear feed-forward networks in their standard parameterization is substantially more delicate. Second, we show that residual networks with ReLu activations have universal finite-sample expressivity in the sense that the network can represent any function of its sample provided that the model has more parameters than the sample size. Directly inspired by our theory, we experiment with a radically simple residual architecture consisting of only residual convolutional layers and ReLu activations, but no batch normalization, dropout, or max pool. Our model improves significantly on previous all-convolutional networks on the CIFAR10, CIFAR100, and ImageNet classification benchmarks.

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(CAD)$^2$RL: Real Single-Image Flight without a Single Real Image

Fereshteh Sadeghi, Sergey Levine

We propose (CAD)$^2$RL, a flight controller for Collision Avoidance via Deep Reinforcement Learning that can be used to perform collision-free flight in the real world although it is trained entirely in a 3D CAD model simulator. Our method uses only single RGB images from a monocular camera mounted on the robot as the input and is specialized for indoor hallway following and obstacle avoidance. In contrast to most indoor navigation techniques that aim to directly reconstruct the 3D geometry of the environment, our approach directly predicts the probability of collision given the current monocular image and a candidate action. To obtain accurate predictions, we develop a deep reinforcement learning algorithm for learning indoor navigation, which uses the actual performance of the current policy to construct accurate supervision. The collision prediction model is represented by a deep convolutional neural network that directly processes raw image inputs. Our collision avoidance system is entirely trained in simulation and thus addresses the high sample complexity of deep reinforcement learning and avoids the dangers of trial-and-error learning in the real world. By highly randomizing the rendering settings for our simulated training set, we show that we can train a collision predictor that generalizes to new environments with substantially different appearance from the training scenarios. Finally, we evaluate our method in the real world by controlling a real quadrotor flying through real hallways. We demonstrate that our method can perform real-world collision avoidance and hallway following after being trained exclusively on synthetic images, without ever having seen a single real image at the training time. For supplementary video see:

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Automated Inference on Criminality using Face Images

Xiaolin Wu, Xi Zhang

We study, for the first time, automated inference on criminality based solely on still face images. Via supervised machine learning, we build four classifiers (logistic regression, KNN, SVM, CNN) using facial images of 1856 real persons controlled for race, gender, age and facial expressions, nearly half of whom were convicted criminals, for discriminating between criminals and non-criminals. All four classifiers perform consistently well and produce evidence for the validity of automated face-induced inference on criminality, despite the historical controversy surrounding the topic. Also, we find some discriminating structural features for predicting criminality, such as lip curvature, eye inner corner distance, and the so-called nose-mouth angle. Above all, the most important discovery of this research is that criminal and non-criminal face images populate two quite distinctive manifolds. The variation among criminal faces is significantly greater than that of the non-criminal faces. The two manifolds consisting of criminal and non-criminal faces appear to be concentric, with the non-criminal manifold lying in the kernel with a smaller span, exhibiting a law of normality for faces of non-criminals. In other words, the faces of general law-biding public have a greater degree of resemblance compared with the faces of criminals, or criminals have a higher degree of dissimilarity in facial appearance than normal people.

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Multi-class Generative Adversarial Networks with the L2 Loss Function

Xudong Mao, Qing Li, Haoran Xie, Raymond Y. K. Lau, Zhen Wang

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have achieved huge success in unsupervised learning. Most of GANs treat the discriminator as a classifier with the binary sigmoid cross entropy loss function. However, we find that the sigmoid cross entropy loss function will sometimes lead to the saturation problem in GANs learning. In this work, we propose to adopt the L2 loss function for the discriminator. The properties of the L2 loss function can improve the stabilization of GANs learning. With the usage of the L2 loss function, we propose the multi-class generative adversarial networks for the purpose of image generation with multiple classes. We evaluate the multi-class GANs on a handwritten Chinese characters dataset with 3740 classes. The experiments demonstrate that the multi-class GANs can generate elegant images on datasets with a large number of classes. Comparison experiments between the L2 loss function and the sigmoid cross entropy loss function are also conducted and the results demonstrate the stabilization of the L2 loss function.

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Leveraging Video Descriptions to Learn Video Question Answering

Kuo-Hao Zeng, Tseng-Hung Chen, Ching-Yao Chuang, Yuan-Hong Liao, Juan Carlos Niebles, Min Sun

We propose a scalable approach to learn video-based question answering (QA): answer a "free-form natural language question" about a video content. Our approach automatically harvests a large number of videos and descriptions freely available online. Then, a large number of candidate QA pairs are automatically generated from descriptions rather than manually annotated. Next, we use these candidate QA pairs to train a number of video-based QA methods extended fromMN (Sukhbaatar et al. 2015), VQA (Antol et al. 2015), SA (Yao et al. 2015), SS (Venugopalan et al. 2015). In order to handle non-perfect candidate QA pairs, we propose a self-paced learning procedure to iteratively identify them and mitigate their effects in training. Finally, we evaluate performance on manually generated video-based QA pairs. The results show that our self-paced learning procedure is effective, and the extended SS model outperforms various baselines.

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Learning to Learn for Global Optimization of Black Box Functions

Yutian Chen, Matthew W. Hoffman, Sergio Gomez Colmenarejo, Misha Denil, Timothy P. Lillicrap, Nando de Freitas

We present a learning to learn approach for training recurrent neural networks to perform black-box global optimization. In the meta-learning phase we use a large set of smooth target functions to learn a recurrent neural network (RNN) optimizer, which is either a long-short term memory network or a differentiable neural computer. After learning, the RNN can be applied to learn policies in reinforcement learning, as well as other black-box learning tasks, including continuous correlated bandits and experimental design. We compare this approach to Bayesian optimization, with emphasis on the issues of computation speed, horizon length, and exploration-exploitation trade-offs.

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Understanding deep learning requires rethinking generalization

Chiyuan Zhang, Samy Bengio, Moritz Hardt, Benjamin Recht, Oriol Vinyals

Despite their massive size, successful deep artificial neural networks can exhibit a remarkably small difference between training and test performance. Conventional wisdom attributes small generalization error either to properties of the model family, or to the regularization techniques used during training. Through extensive systematic experiments, we show how these traditional approaches fail to explain why large neural networks generalize well in practice. Specifically, our experiments establish that state-of-the-art convolutional networks for image classification trained with stochastic gradient methods easily fit a random labeling of the training data. This phenomenon is qualitatively unaffected by explicit regularization, and occurs even if we replace the true images by completely unstructured random noise. We corroborate these experimental findings with a theoretical construction showing that simple depth two neural networks already have perfect finite sample expressivity as soon as the number of parameters exceeds the number of data points as it usually does in practice. We interpret our experimental findings by comparison with traditional models.

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Ultimate tensorization: compressing convolutional and FC layers alike

Timur Garipov, Dmitry Podoprikhin, Alexander Novikov, Dmitry Vetrov

Convolutional neural networks excel in image recognition tasks, but this comes at the cost of high computational and memory complexity. To tackle this problem, [1] developed a tensor factorization framework to compress fully-connected layers. In this paper, we focus on compressing convolutional layers. We show that while the direct application of the tensor framework [1] to the 4-dimensional kernel of convolution does compress the layer, we can do better. We reshape the convolutional kernel into a tensor of higher order and factorize it. We combine the proposed approach with the previous work to compress both convolutional and fully-connected layers of a network and achieve 80x network compression rate with 1.1% accuracy drop on the CIFAR-10 dataset.

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Low Data Drug Discovery with One-shot Learning

Han Altae-Tran, Bharath Ramsundar, Aneesh S. Pappu, Vijay Pande

Recent advances in machine learning have made significant contributions to drug discovery. Deep neural networks in particular have been demonstrated to provide significant boosts in predictive power when inferring the properties and activities of small-molecule compounds. However, the applicability of these techniques has been limited by the requirement for large amounts of training data. In this work, we demonstrate how one-shot learning can be used to significantly lower the amounts of data required to make meaningful predictions in drug discovery applications. We introduce a new architecture, the residual LSTM embedding, that, when combined with graph convolutional neural networks, significantly improves the ability to learn meaningful distance metrics over small-molecules. We open source all models introduced in this work as part of DeepChem, an open-source framework for deep-learning in drug discovery.

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Sequence Tutor: Conservative Fine-Tuning of Sequence Generation Models with KL-control

Natasha Jaques, Shixiang Gu, Dzmitry Bahdanau, Jose Miguel Hernandez Lobato, Richard E. Turner, Douglas Eck

This paper proposes a general method for improving the structure and quality of sequences generated by a recurrent neural network (RNN), while maintaining information originally learned from data, as well as sample diversity. An RNN is first pre-trained on data using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), and the probability distribution over the next token in the sequence learned by this model is treated as a prior policy. Another RNN is then trained using reinforcement learning (RL) to generate higher-quality outputs that account for domain-specific incentives while retaining proximity to the prior policy of the MLE RNN. To formalize this objective, we derive novel off-policy RL methods for RNNs from KL-control. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on two applications; 1) generating novel musical melodies, and 2) computational molecular generation. For both problems, we show that the proposed method improves the desired properties and structure of the generated sequences, while maintaining information learned from data.

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RL$^2$: Fast Reinforcement Learning via Slow Reinforcement Learning

Yan Duan, John Schulman, Xi Chen, Peter L. Bartlett, Ilya Sutskever, Pieter Abbeel

Deep reinforcement learning (deep RL) has been successful in learning sophisticated behaviors automatically; however, the learning process requires a huge number of trials. In contrast, animals can learn new tasks in just a few trials, benefiting from their prior knowledge about the world. This paper seeks to bridge this gap. Rather than designing a "fast" reinforcement learning algorithm, we propose to represent it as a recurrent neural network (RNN) and learn it from data. In our proposed method, RL$^2$, the algorithm is encoded in the weights of the RNN, which are learned slowly through a general-purpose ("slow") RL algorithm. The RNN receives all information a typical RL algorithm would receive, including observations, actions, rewards, and termination flags; and it retains its state across episodes in a given Markov Decision Process (MDP). The activations of the RNN store the state of the "fast" RL algorithm on the current (previously unseen) MDP. We evaluate RL$^2$ experimentally on both small-scale and large-scale problems. On the small-scale side, we train it to solve randomly generated multi-arm bandit problems and finite MDPs. After RL$^2$ is trained, its performance on new MDPs is close to human-designed algorithms with optimality guarantees. On the large-scale side, we test RL$^2$ on a vision-based navigation task and show that it scales up to high-dimensional problems.

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Multispectral Deep Neural Networks for Pedestrian Detection

Jingjing Liu, Shaoting Zhang, Shu Wang, Dimitris N. Metaxas

Multispectral pedestrian detection is essential for around-the-clock applications, e.g., surveillance and autonomous driving. We deeply analyze Faster R-CNN for multispectral pedestrian detection task and then model it into a convolutional network (ConvNet) fusion problem. Further, we discover that ConvNet-based pedestrian detectors trained by color or thermal images separately provide complementary information in discriminating human instances. Thus there is a large potential to improve pedestrian detection by using color and thermal images in DNNs simultaneously. We carefully design four ConvNet fusion architectures that integrate two-branch ConvNets on different DNNs stages, all of which yield better performance compared with the baseline detector. Our experimental results on KAIST pedestrian benchmark show that the Halfway Fusion model that performs fusion on the middle-level convolutional features outperforms the baseline method by 11% and yields a missing rate 3.5% lower than the other proposed architectures.

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Unsupervised Cross-Domain Image Generation

Yaniv Taigman, Adam Polyak, Lior Wolf

We study the problem of transferring a sample in one domain to an analog sample in another domain. Given two related domains, S and T, we would like to learn a generative function G that maps an input sample from S to the domain T, such that the output of a given function f, which accepts inputs in either domains, would remain unchanged. Other than the function f, the training data is unsupervised and consist of a set of samples from each domain. The Domain Transfer Network (DTN) we present employs a compound loss function that includes a multiclass GAN loss, an f-constancy component, and a regularizing component that encourages G to map samples from T to themselves. We apply our method to visual domains including digits and face images and demonstrate its ability to generate convincing novel images of previously unseen entities, while preserving their identity.

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Lifelong Perceptual Programming By Example

Alexander L. Gaunt, Marc Brockschmidt, Nate Kushman, Daniel Tarlow

We introduce and develop solutions for the problem of Lifelong Perceptual Programming By Example (LPPBE). The problem is to induce a series of programs that require understanding perceptual data like images or text. LPPBE systems learn from weak supervision (input-output examples) and incrementally construct a shared library of components that grows and improves as more tasks are solved. Methodologically, we extend differentiable interpreters to operate on perceptual data and to share components across tasks. Empirically we show that this leads to a lifelong learning system that transfers knowledge to new tasks more effectively than baselines, and the performance on earlier tasks continues to improve even as the system learns on new, different tasks.

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Neural Functional Programming

John K. Feser, Marc Brockschmidt, Alexander L. Gaunt, Daniel Tarlow

We discuss a range of modeling choices that arise when constructing an end-to-end differentiable programming language suitable for learning programs from input-output examples. Taking cues from programming languages research, we study the effect of memory allocation schemes, immutable data, type systems, and built-in control-flow structures on the success rate of learning algorithms. We build a range of models leading up to a simple differentiable functional programming language. Our empirical evaluation shows that this language allows to learn far more programs than existing baselines.

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Neural Machine Translation with Reconstruction

Zhaopeng Tu, Yang Liu, Lifeng Shang, Xiaohua Liu, Hang Li

Although end-to-end Neural Machine Translation (NMT) has achieved remarkable progress in the past two years, it suffers from a major drawback: translations generated by NMT systems often lack of adequacy. It has been widely observed that NMT tends to repeatedly translate some source words while mistakenly ignoring other words. To alleviate this problem, we propose a novel encoder-decoder-reconstructor framework for NMT. The reconstructor, incorporated into the NMT model, manages to reconstruct the input source sentence from the hidden layer of the output target sentence, to ensure that the information in the source side is transformed to the target side as much as possible. Experiments show that the proposed framework significantly improves the adequacy of NMT output and achieves superior translation result over state-of-the-art NMT and statistical MT systems.

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End-to-end Optimized Image Compression

Johannes Ballé, Valero Laparra, Eero P. Simoncelli

We describe an image compression system, consisting of a nonlinear encoding transformation, a uniform quantizer, and a nonlinear decoding transformation. Like many deep neural network architectures, the transforms consist of layers of convolutional linear filters and nonlinear activation functions, but we use a joint nonlinearity that implements a form of local gain control, inspired by those used to model biological neurons. Using a variant of stochastic gradient descent, we jointly optimize the system for rate-distortion performance over a database of training images, introducing a continuous proxy for the discontinuous loss function arising from the quantizer. The relaxed optimization problem resembles that of variational autoencoders, except that it must operate at any point along the rate-distortion curve, whereas the optimization of generative models aims only to minimize entropy of the data under the model. Across an independent database of test images, we find that the optimized coder exhibits significantly better rate-distortion performance than the standard JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression systems, as well as a dramatic improvement in visual quality of compressed images.

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Boosting Image Captioning with Attributes

Ting Yao, Yingwei Pan, Yehao Li, Zhaofan Qiu, Tao Mei

Automatically describing an image with a natural language has been an emerging challenge in both fields of computer vision and natural language processing. In this paper, we present Long Short-Term Memory with Attributes (LSTM-A) - a novel architecture that integrates attributes into the successful Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) plus Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) image captioning framework, by training them in an end-to-end manner. To incorporate attributes, we construct variants of architectures by feeding image representations and attributes into RNNs in different ways to explore the mutual but also fuzzy relationship between them. Extensive experiments are conducted on COCO image captioning dataset and our framework achieves superior results when compared to state-of-the-art deep models. Most remarkably, we obtain METEOR/CIDEr-D of 25.2%/98.6% on testing data of widely used and publicly available splits in (Karpathy & Fei-Fei, 2015) when extracting image representations by GoogleNet and achieve to date top-1 performance on COCO captioning Leaderboard.

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Dynamic Coattention Networks For Question Answering

Caiming Xiong, Victor Zhong, Richard Socher

Several deep learning models have been proposed for question answering. However, due to their single-pass nature, they have no way to recover from local maxima corresponding to incorrect answers. To address this problem, we introduce the Dynamic Coattention Network (DCN) for question answering. The DCN first fuses co-dependent representations of the question and the document in order to focus on relevant parts of both. Then a dynamic pointing decoder iterates over potential answer spans. This iterative procedure enables the model to recover from initial local maxima corresponding to incorrect answers. On the Stanford question answering dataset, a single DCN model improves the previous state of the art from 71.0% F1 to 75.9%, while a DCN ensemble obtains 80.4% F1.

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LipNet: Sentence-level Lipreading

Yannis M. Assael, Brendan Shillingford, Shimon Whiteson, Nando de Freitas

Lipreading is the task of decoding text from the movement of a speaker's mouth. Traditional approaches separated the problem into two stages: designing or learning visual features, and prediction. More recent deep lipreading approaches are end-to-end trainable (Wand et al., 2016; Chung & Zisserman, 2016a). All existing works, however, perform only word classification, not sentence-level sequence prediction. Studies have shown that human lipreading performance increases for longer words (Easton & Basala, 1982), indicating the importance of features capturing temporal context in an ambiguous communication channel. Motivated by this observation, we present LipNet, a model that maps a variable-length sequence of video frames to text, making use of spatiotemporal convolutions, an LSTM recurrent network, and the connectionist temporal classification loss, trained entirely end-to-end. To the best of our knowledge, LipNet is the first lipreading model to operate at sentence-level, using a single end-to-end speaker-independent deep model to simultaneously learn spatiotemporal visual features and a sequence model. On the GRID corpus, LipNet achieves 93.4% accuracy, outperforming experienced human lipreaders and the previous 79.6% state-of-the-art accuracy.

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