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The PyTorch-Kaldi Speech Recognition Toolkit

Mirco Ravanelli, Titouan Parcollet, Yoshua Bengio

The availability of open-source software is playing a remarkable role in the popularization of speech recognition and deep learning. Kaldi, for instance, is nowadays an established framework used to develop state-of-the-art speech recognizers. PyTorch is used to build neural networks with the Python language and has recently spawn tremendous interest within the machine learning community thanks to its simplicity and flexibility. The PyTorch-Kaldi project aims to bridge the gap between these popular toolkits, trying to inherit the efficiency of Kaldi and the flexibility of PyTorch. PyTorch-Kaldi is not only a simple interface between these software, but it embeds several useful features for developing modern speech recognizers. For instance, the code is specifically designed to naturally plug-in user-defined acoustic models. As an alternative, users can exploit several pre-implemented neural networks that can be customized using intuitive configuration files. PyTorch-Kaldi supports multiple feature and label streams as well as combinations of neural networks, enabling the use of complex neural architectures. The toolkit is publicly-released along with a rich documentation and is designed to properly work locally or on HPC clusters. Experiments, that are conducted on several datasets and tasks, show that PyTorch-Kaldi can effectively be used to develop modern state-of-the-art speech recognizers.

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Deep Determinantal Point Processes

Mike Gartrell, Elvis Dohmatob

Determinantal point processes (DPPs) have attracted significant attention as an elegant model that is able to capture the balance between quality and diversity within sets. DPPs are parameterized by a positive semi-definite kernel matrix. While DPPs have substantial expressive power, they are fundamentally limited by the parameterization of the kernel matrix and their inability to capture nonlinear interactions between items within sets. We present the deep DPP model as way to address these limitations, by using a deep feed-forward neural network to learn the kernel matrix. In addition to allowing us to capture nonlinear item interactions, the deep DPP also allows easy incorporation of item metadata into DPP learning. We show experimentally that the deep DPP can provide a considerable improvement in the predictive performance of DPPs.

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Representation Mixing for TTS Synthesis

Kyle Kastner, João Felipe Santos, Yoshua Bengio, Aaron Courville

Recent character and phoneme-based parametric TTS systems using deep learning have shown strong performance in natural speech generation. However, the choice between character or phoneme input can create serious limitations for practical deployment, as direct control of pronunciation is crucial in certain cases. We demonstrate a simple method for combining multiple types of linguistic information in a single encoder, named representation mixing, enabling flexible choice between character, phoneme, or mixed representations during inference. Experiments and user studies on a public audiobook corpus show the efficacy of our approach.

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Blindfold Baselines for Embodied QA

Ankesh Anand, Eugene Belilovsky, Kyle Kastner, Hugo Larochelle, Aaron Courville

We explore blindfold (question-only) baselines for Embodied Question Answering. The EmbodiedQA task requires an agent to answer a question by intelligently navigating in a simulated environment, gathering necessary visual information only through first-person vision before finally answering. Consequently, a blindfold baseline which ignores the environment and visual information is a degenerate solution, yet we show through our experiments on the EQAv1 dataset that a simple question-only baseline achieves state-of-the-art results on the EmbodiedQA task in all cases except when the agent is spawned extremely close to the object.

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Learning Latent Dynamics for Planning from Pixels

Danijar Hafner, Timothy Lillicrap, Ian Fischer, Ruben Villegas, David Ha, Honglak Lee, James Davidson

Planning has been very successful for control tasks with known environment dynamics. To leverage planning in unknown environments, the agent needs to learn the dynamics from interactions with the world. However, learning dynamics models that are accurate enough for planning has been a long-standing challenge, especially in image-based domains. We propose the Deep Planning Network (PlaNet), a purely model-based agent that learns the environment dynamics from pixels and chooses actions through online planning in latent space. To achieve high performance, the dynamics model must accurately predict the rewards ahead for multiple time steps. We approach this problem using a latent dynamics model with both deterministic and stochastic transition function and a generalized variational inference objective that we name latent overshooting. Using only pixel observations, our agent solves continuous control tasks with contact dynamics, partial observability, and sparse rewards. PlaNet uses significantly fewer episodes and reaches final performance close to and sometimes higher than top model-free algorithms.

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A generic framework for privacy preserving deep learning

Theo Ryffel, Andrew Trask, Morten Dahl, Bobby Wagner, Jason Mancuso, Daniel Rueckert, Jonathan Passerat-Palmbach

We detail a new framework for privacy preserving deep learning and discuss its assets. The framework puts a premium on ownership and secure processing of data and introduces a valuable representation based on chains of commands and tensors. This abstraction allows one to implement complex privacy preserving constructs such as Federated Learning, Secure Multiparty Computation, and Differential Privacy while still exposing a familiar deep learning API to the end-user. We report early results on the Boston Housing and Pima Indian Diabetes datasets. While the privacy features apart from Differential Privacy do not impact the prediction accuracy, the current implementation of the framework introduces a significant overhead in performance, which will be addressed at a later stage of the development. We believe this work is an important milestone introducing the first reliable, general framework for privacy preserving deep learning.

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Learning from Demonstration in the Wild

Feryal Behbahani, Kyriacos Shiarlis, Xi Chen, Vitaly Kurin, Sudhanshu Kasewa, Ciprian Stirbu, João Gomes, Supratik Paul, Frans A. Oliehoek, João Messias, Shimon Whiteson

Learning from demonstration (LfD) is useful in settings where hand-coding behaviour or a reward function is impractical. It has succeeded in a wide range of problems but typically relies on artificially generated demonstrations or specially deployed sensors and has not generally been able to leverage the copious demonstrations available in the wild: those that capture behaviour that was occurring anyway using sensors that were already deployed for another purpose, e.g., traffic camera footage capturing demonstrations of natural behaviour of vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians. We propose video to behaviour (ViBe), a new approach to learning models of road user behaviour that requires as input only unlabelled raw video data of a traffic scene collected from a single, monocular, uncalibrated camera with ordinary resolution. Our approach calibrates the camera, detects relevant objects, tracks them through time, and uses the resulting trajectories to perform LfD, yielding models of naturalistic behaviour. We apply ViBe to raw videos of a traffic intersection and show that it can learn purely from videos, without additional expert knowledge.

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Dirichlet Variational Autoencoder for Text Modeling

Yijun Xiao, Tiancheng Zhao, William Yang Wang

We introduce an improved variational autoencoder (VAE) for text modeling with topic information explicitly modeled as a Dirichlet latent variable. By providing the proposed model topic awareness, it is more superior at reconstructing input texts. Furthermore, due to the inherent interactions between the newly introduced Dirichlet variable and the conventional multivariate Gaussian variable, the model is less prone to KL divergence vanishing. We derive the variational lower bound for the new model and conduct experiments on four different data sets. The results show that the proposed model is superior at text reconstruction across the latent space and classifications on learned representations have higher test accuracies.

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Model-Based Active Exploration

Pranav Shyam, Wojciech Jaśkowski, Faustino Gomez

Efficient exploration is an unsolved problem in Reinforcement Learning. We introduce Model-Based Active eXploration (MAX), an algorithm that actively explores the environment. It minimizes data required to comprehensively model the environment by planning to observe novel events, instead of merely reacting to novelty encountered by chance. Non-stationarity induced by traditional exploration bonus techniques is avoided by constructing fresh exploration policies only at time of action. In semi-random toy environments where directed exploration is critical to make progress, our algorithm is at least an order of magnitude more efficient than strong baselines.

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Intrinsic Social Motivation via Causal Influence in Multi-Agent RL

Natasha Jaques, Angeliki Lazaridou, Edward Hughes, Caglar Gulcehre, Pedro A. Ortega, DJ Strouse, Joel Z. Leibo, Nando de Freitas

We derive a new intrinsic social motivation for multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL), in which agents are rewarded for having causal influence over another agent's actions. Causal influence is assessed using counterfactual reasoning. The reward does not depend on observing another agent's reward function, and is thus a more realistic approach to MARL than taken in previous work. We show that the causal influence reward is related to maximizing the mutual information between agents' actions. We test the approach in challenging social dilemma environments, where it consistently leads to enhanced cooperation between agents and higher collective reward. Moreover, we find that rewarding influence can lead agents to develop emergent communication protocols. We therefore employ influence to train agents to use an explicit communication channel, and find that it leads to more effective communication and higher collective reward. Finally, we show that influence can be computed by equipping each agent with an internal model that predicts the actions of other agents. This allows the social influence reward to be computed without the use of a centralised controller, and as such represents a significantly more general and scalable inductive bias for MARL with independent agents.

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The LORACs prior for VAEs: Letting the Trees Speak for the Data

Sharad Vikram, Matthew D. Hoffman, Matthew J. Johnson

In variational autoencoders, the prior on the latent codes $z$ is often treated as an afterthought, but the prior shapes the kind of latent representation that the model learns. If the goal is to learn a representation that is interpretable and useful, then the prior should reflect the ways in which the high-level factors that describe the data vary. The "default" prior is an isotropic normal, but if the natural factors of variation in the dataset exhibit discrete structure or are not independent, then the isotropic-normal prior will actually encourage learning representations that mask this structure. To alleviate this problem, we propose using a flexible Bayesian nonparametric hierarchical clustering prior based on the time-marginalized coalescent (TMC). To scale learning to large datasets, we develop a new inducing-point approximation and inference algorithm. We then apply the method without supervision to several datasets and examine the interpretability and practical performance of the inferred hierarchies and learned latent space.

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Piano Genie

Chris Donahue, Ian Simon, Sander Dieleman

We present Piano Genie, an intelligent controller which allows non-musicians to improvise on the piano. With Piano Genie, a user performs on a simple interface with eight buttons, and their performance is decoded into the space of plausible piano music in real time. To learn a suitable mapping procedure for this problem, we train recurrent neural network autoencoders with discrete bottlenecks: an encoder learns an appropriate sequence of buttons corresponding to a piano piece, and a decoder learns to map this sequence back to the original piece. During performance, we substitute a user's input for the encoder output, and play the decoder's prediction each time the user presses a button. To improve the interpretability of Piano Genie's performance mechanics, we impose musically-salient constraints over the encoder's outputs.

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BERT: Pre-training of Deep Bidirectional Transformers for Language Understanding

Jacob Devlin, Ming-Wei Chang, Kenton Lee, Kristina Toutanova

We introduce a new language representation model called BERT, which stands for Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers. Unlike recent language representation models, BERT is designed to pre-train deep bidirectional representations by jointly conditioning on both left and right context in all layers. As a result, the pre-trained BERT representations can be fine-tuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of tasks, such as question answering and language inference, without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. BERT is conceptually simple and empirically powerful. It obtains new state-of-the-art results on eleven natural language processing tasks, including pushing the GLUE benchmark to 80.4% (7.6% absolute improvement), MultiNLI accuracy to 86.7 (5.6% absolute improvement) and the SQuAD v1.1 question answering Test F1 to 93.2 (1.5% absolute improvement), outperforming human performance by 2.0%.

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Reinforcement Learning for Improving Agent Design

David Ha

In many reinforcement learning tasks, the goal is to learn a policy to manipulate an agent, whose design is fixed, to maximize some notion of cumulative reward. The design of the agent's physical structure is rarely optimized for the task at hand. In this work, we explore the possibility of learning a version of the agent's design that is better suited for its task, jointly with the policy. We propose a minor alteration to the OpenAI Gym framework, where we parameterize parts of an environment, and allow an agent to jointly learn to modify these environment parameters along with its policy. We demonstrate that an agent can learn a better structure of its body that is not only better suited for the task, but also facilitates policy learning. Joint learning of policy and structure may even uncover design principles that are useful for assisted-design applications. Videos of results at https://designrl.github.io/

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Optimal Completion Distillation for Sequence Learning

Sara Sabour, William Chan, Mohammad Norouzi

We present Optimal Completion Distillation (OCD), a training procedure for optimizing sequence to sequence models based on edit distance. OCD is efficient, has no hyper-parameters of its own, and does not require pretraining or joint optimization with conditional log-likelihood. Given a partial sequence generated by the model, we first identify the set of optimal suffixes that minimize the total edit distance, using an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. Then, for each position of the generated sequence, we use a target distribution that puts equal probability on the first token of all the optimal suffixes. OCD achieves the state-of-the-art performance on end-to-end speech recognition, on both Wall Street Journal and Librispeech datasets, achieving $9.3\%$ WER and $4.5\%$ WER respectively.

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Taming VAEs

Danilo Jimenez Rezende, Fabio Viola

In spite of remarkable progress in deep latent variable generative modeling, training still remains a challenge due to a combination of optimization and generalization issues. In practice, a combination of heuristic algorithms (such as hand-crafted annealing of KL-terms) is often used in order to achieve the desired results, but such solutions are not robust to changes in model architecture or dataset. The best settings can often vary dramatically from one problem to another, which requires doing expensive parameter sweeps for each new case. Here we develop on the idea of training VAEs with additional constraints as a way to control their behaviour. We first present a detailed theoretical analysis of constrained VAEs, expanding our understanding of how these models work. We then introduce and analyze a practical algorithm termed Generalized ELBO with Constrained Optimization, GECO. The main advantage of GECO for the machine learning practitioner is a more intuitive, yet principled, process of tuning the loss. This involves defining of a set of constraints, which typically have an explicit relation to the desired model performance, in contrast to tweaking abstract hyper-parameters which implicitly affect the model behavior. Encouraging experimental results in several standard datasets indicate that GECO is a very robust and effective tool to balance reconstruction and compression constraints.

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Large Scale GAN Training for High Fidelity Natural Image Synthesis

Andrew Brock, Jeff Donahue, Karen Simonyan

Despite recent progress in generative image modeling, successfully generating high-resolution, diverse samples from complex datasets such as ImageNet remains an elusive goal. To this end, we train Generative Adversarial Networks at the largest scale yet attempted, and study the instabilities specific to such scale. We find that applying orthogonal regularization to the generator renders it amenable to a simple "truncation trick", allowing fine control over the trade-off between sample fidelity and variety by truncating the latent space. Our modifications lead to models which set the new state of the art in class-conditional image synthesis. When trained on ImageNet at 128x128 resolution, our models (BigGANs) achieve an Inception Score (IS) of 166.3 and Frechet Inception Distance (FID) of 9.6, improving over the previous best IS of 52.52 and FID of 18.65.

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A Systems Approach to Achieving the Benefits of Artificial Intelligence in UK Defence

Gavin Pearson, Phil Jolley, Geraint Evans

The ability to exploit the opportunities offered by AI within UK Defence calls for an understanding of systemic issues required to achieve an effective operational capability. This paper provides the authors' views of issues which currently block UK Defence from fully benefitting from AI technology. These are situated within a reference model for the AI Value Train, so enabling the community to address the exploitation of such data and software intensive systems in a systematic, end to end manner. The paper sets out the conditions for success including: Researching future solutions to known problems and clearly defined use cases; Addressing achievable use cases to show benefit; Enhancing the availability of Defence-relevant data; Enhancing Defence 'know how' in AI; Operating Software Intensive supply chain eco-systems at required breadth and pace; Governance and, the integration of software and platform supply chains and operating models.

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A Short Survey of Topological Data Analysis in Time Series and Systems Analysis

Shafie Gholizadeh, Wlodek Zadrozny

Topological Data Analysis (TDA) is the collection of mathematical tools that capture the structure of shapes in data. Despite computational topology and computational geometry, the utilization of TDA in time series and signal processing is relatively new. In some recent contributions, TDA has been utilized as an alternative to the conventional signal processing methods. Specifically, TDA is been considered to deal with noisy signals and time series. In these applications, TDA is used to find the shapes in data as the main properties, while the other properties are assumed much less informative. In this paper, we will review recent developments and contributions where topological data analysis especially persistent homology has been applied to time series analysis, dynamical systems and signal processing. We will cover problem statements such as stability determination, risk analysis, systems behaviour, and predicting critical transitions in financial markets.

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Benchmarking Reinforcement Learning Algorithms on Real-World Robots

A. Rupam Mahmood, Dmytro Korenkevych, Gautham Vasan, William Ma, James Bergstra

Through many recent successes in simulation, model-free reinforcement learning has emerged as a promising approach to solving continuous control robotic tasks. The research community is now able to reproduce, analyze and build quickly on these results due to open source implementations of learning algorithms and simulated benchmark tasks. To carry forward these successes to real-world applications, it is crucial to withhold utilizing the unique advantages of simulations that do not transfer to the real world and experiment directly with physical robots. However, reinforcement learning research with physical robots faces substantial resistance due to the lack of benchmark tasks and supporting source code. In this work, we introduce several reinforcement learning tasks with multiple commercially available robots that present varying levels of learning difficulty, setup, and repeatability. On these tasks, we test the learning performance of off-the-shelf implementations of four reinforcement learning algorithms and analyze sensitivity to their hyper-parameters to determine their readiness for applications in various real-world tasks. Our results show that with a careful setup of the task interface and computations, some of these implementations can be readily applicable to physical robots. We find that state-of-the-art learning algorithms are highly sensitive to their hyper-parameters and their relative ordering does not transfer across tasks, indicating the necessity of re-tuning them for each task for best performance. On the other hand, the best hyper-parameter configuration from one task may often result in effective learning on held-out tasks even with different robots, providing a reasonable default. We make the benchmark tasks publicly available to enhance reproducibility in real-world reinforcement learning.

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