# Trending arXiv

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### Papers

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#### End to End Learning for Self-Driving Cars

Mariusz Bojarski, Davide Del Testa, Daniel Dworakowski, Bernhard Firner, Beat Flepp, Prasoon Goyal, Lawrence D. Jackel, Mathew Monfort, Urs Muller, Jiakai Zhang, Xin Zhang, Jake Zhao, Karol Zieba

We trained a convolutional neural network (CNN) to map raw pixels from a single front-facing camera directly to steering commands. This end-to-end approach proved surprisingly powerful. With minimum training data from humans the system learns to drive in traffic on local roads with or without lane markings and on highways. It also operates in areas with unclear visual guidance such as in parking lots and on unpaved roads. The system automatically learns internal representations of the necessary processing steps such as detecting useful road features with only the human steering angle as the training signal. We never explicitly trained it to detect, for example, the outline of roads. Compared to explicit decomposition of the problem, such as lane marking detection, path planning, and control, our end-to-end system optimizes all processing steps simultaneously. We argue that this will eventually lead to better performance and smaller systems. Better performance will result because the internal components self-optimize to maximize overall system performance, instead of optimizing human-selected intermediate criteria, e.g., lane detection. Such criteria understandably are selected for ease of human interpretation which doesn't automatically guarantee maximum system performance. Smaller networks are possible because the system learns to solve the problem with the minimal number of processing steps. We used an NVIDIA DevBox and Torch 7 for training and an NVIDIA DRIVE(TM) PX self-driving car computer also running Torch 7 for determining where to drive. The system operates at 30 frames per second (FPS).

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#### Multilingual Part-of-Speech Tagging with Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Models and Auxiliary Loss

Barbara Plank, Anders Søgaard, Yoav Goldberg

Bidirectional long short-term memory (bi-LSTM) networks have recently proven successful for various NLP sequence modeling tasks, but little is known about their reliance to input representations, target languages, data set size, and label noise. We address these issues and evaluate bi-LSTMs with word, character, and unicode byte embeddings for POS tagging. We compare bi-LSTMs to traditional POS taggers across languages and data sizes. We also present a novel bi-LSTM model, which combines the POS tagging loss function with an auxiliary loss function that accounts for rare words. The model obtains state-of-the-art performance across 22 languages, and works especially well for morphologically complex languages. Our analysis suggests that bi-LSTMs are less sensitive to training data size and label corruptions (at small noise levels) than previously assumed.

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#### Understanding How Image Quality Affects Deep Neural Networks

Samuel Dodge, Lina Karam

Image quality is an important practical challenge that is often overlooked in the design of machine vision systems. Commonly, machine vision systems are trained and tested on high quality image datasets, yet in practical applications the input images can not be assumed to be of high quality. Recently, deep neural networks have obtained state-of-the-art performance on many machine vision tasks. In this paper we provide an evaluation of 4 state-of-the-art deep neural network models for image classification under quality distortions. We consider five types of quality distortions: blur, noise, contrast, JPEG, and JPEG2000 compression. We show that the existing networks are susceptible to these quality distortions, particularly to blur and noise. These results enable future work in developing deep neural networks that are more invariant to quality distortions.

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#### Optimizing Performance of Recurrent Neural Networks on GPUs

Jeremy Appleyard, Tomas Kocisky, Phil Blunsom

As recurrent neural networks become larger and deeper, training times for single networks are rising into weeks or even months. As such there is a significant incentive to improve the performance and scalability of these networks. While GPUs have become the hardware of choice for training and deploying recurrent models, the implementations employed often make use of only basic optimizations for these architectures. In this article we demonstrate that by exposing parallelism between operations within the network, an order of magnitude speedup across a range of network sizes can be achieved over a naive implementation. We describe three stages of optimization that have been incorporated into the fifth release of NVIDIA's cuDNN: firstly optimizing a single cell, secondly a single layer, and thirdly the entire network.

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#### An Ensemble Method to Produce High-Quality Word Embeddings

Robert Speer, Joshua Chin

A currently successful approach to computational semantics is to represent words as embeddings in a machine-learned vector space. We present an ensemble method that combines embeddings produced by GloVe (Pennington et al., 2014) and word2vec (Mikolov et al., 2013) with structured knowledge from the semantic networks ConceptNet (Speer and Havasi, 2012) and PPDB (Ganitkevitch et al., 2013), merging their information into a common representation with a large, multilingual vocabulary. The embeddings it produces achieve state-of-the-art performance on many word-similarity evaluations. Its score of $\rho = .596$ on an evaluation of rare words (Luong et al., 2013) is 16% higher than the previous best known system.

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#### Revisiting Distributed Synchronous SGD

Jianmin Chen, Rajat Monga, Samy Bengio, Rafal Jozefowicz

The recent success of deep learning approaches for domains like speech recognition (Hinton et al., 2012) and computer vision (Ioffe & Szegedy, 2015) stems from many algorithmic improvements but also from the fact that the size of available training data has grown significantly over the years, together with the computing power, in terms of both CPUs and GPUs. While a single GPU often provides algorithmic simplicity and speed up to a given scale of data and model, there exist an operating point where a distributed implementation of training algorithms for deep architectures becomes necessary. Previous works have been focusing on asynchronous SGD training, which works well up to a few dozens of workers for some models. In this work, we show that synchronous SGD training, with the help of backup workers, can not only achieve better accuracy, but also reach convergence faster with respect to wall time, i.e. use more workers more efficiently.

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#### Achieving Open Vocabulary Neural Machine Translation with Hybrid Word-Character Models

Minh-Thang Luong, Christopher D. Manning

Nearly all previous work on neural machine translation (NMT) has used quite restricted vocabularies, perhaps with a subsequent method to patch in unknown words. This paper presents a novel word-character solution to achieving open vocabulary NMT. We build hybrid systems that translate mostly at the word level and consult the character components for rare words. Our character-level recurrent neural networks compute source word representations and recover unknown target words when needed. The twofold advantage of such a hybrid approach is that it is much faster and easier to train than character-based ones; at the same time, it never produces unknown words as in the case of word-based models. On the WMT'15 English to Czech translation task, this hybrid approach offers an addition boost of +2.1-11.4 BLEU points over models that already handle unknown words. Our best system achieves a new state-of-the-art result with 20.7 BLEU score. We demonstrate that our character models can successfully learn to not only generate well-formed words for Czech, a highly-inflected language with a very complex vocabulary, but also build correct representations for English source words.

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#### Building Machines That Learn and Think Like People

Brenden M. Lake, Tomer D. Ullman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Samuel J. Gershman

Recent progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has renewed interest in building systems that learn and think like people. Many advances have come from using deep neural networks trained end-to-end in tasks such as object recognition, video games, and board games, achieving performance that equals or even beats humans in some respects. Despite their biological inspiration and performance achievements, these systems differ from human intelligence in crucial ways. We review progress in cognitive science suggesting that truly human-like learning and thinking machines will have to reach beyond current engineering trends in both what they learn, and how they learn it. Specifically, we argue that these machines should (a) build causal models of the world that support explanation and understanding, rather than merely solving pattern recognition problems; (b) ground learning in intuitive theories of physics and psychology, to support and enrich the knowledge that is learned; and (c) harness compositionality and learning-to-learn to rapidly acquire and generalize knowledge to new tasks and situations. We suggest concrete challenges and promising routes towards these goals that can combine the strengths of recent neural network advances with more structured cognitive models.

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#### Deep Networks with Stochastic Depth

Gao Huang, Yu Sun, Zhuang Liu, Daniel Sedra, Kilian Weinberger

Very deep convolutional networks with hundreds of layers have led to significant reductions in error on competitive benchmarks. Although the unmatched expressiveness of the many layers can be highly desirable at test time, training very deep networks comes with its own set of challenges. The gradients can vanish, the forward flow often diminishes, and the training time can be painfully slow. To address these problems, we propose stochastic depth, a training procedure that enables the seemingly contradictory setup to train short networks and use deep networks at test time. We start with very deep networks but during training, for each mini-batch, randomly drop a subset of layers and bypass them with the identity function. This simple approach complements the recent success of residual networks. It reduces training time substantially and improves the test error significantly on almost all data sets that we used for evaluation. With stochastic depth we can increase the depth of residual networks even beyond 1200 layers and still yield meaningful improvements in test error (4.91% on CIFAR-10).

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#### Unsupervised Learning of Visual Representations by Solving Jigsaw Puzzles

Mehdi Noroozi, Paolo Favaro

In this paper we study the problem of image representation learning without human annotation. By following the principles of self-supervision, we build a convolutional neural network (CNN) that can be trained to solve Jigsaw puzzles as a pretext task, which requires no manual labeling, and then later repurposed to solve object classification and detection. To maintain the compatibility across tasks we introduce the context-free network (CFN), a siamese-ennead CNN. The CFN takes image tiles as input and explicitly limits the receptive field (or context) of its early processing units to one tile at a time. We show that the CFN is a more compact version of AlexNet, but with the same semantic learning capabilities. By training the CFN to solve Jigsaw puzzles, we learn both a feature mapping of object parts as well as their correct spatial arrangement. Our experimental evaluations show that the learned features capture semantically relevant content. After training our CFN features to solve jigsaw puzzles on the training set of the ILSRV 2012 dataset, we transfer them via fine-tuning on the combined training and validation set of Pascal VOC 2007 for object detection (via fast RCNN) and classification. The performance of the CFN features is 51.8% for detection and 68.6% for classification, which is the highest among features obtained via unsupervised learning, and closing the gap with features obtained via supervised learning (56.5% and 78.2% respectively). In object classification the CFN features achieve 38.1% on the ILSRV 2012 validation set, after fine-tuning only the fully connected layers on the training set.

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#### Recurrent Batch Normalization

Tim Cooijmans, Nicolas Ballas, César Laurent, Çağlar Gülçehre, Aaron Courville

We propose a reparameterization of LSTM that brings the benefits of batch normalization to recurrent neural networks. Whereas previous works only apply batch normalization to the input-to-hidden transformation of RNNs, we demonstrate that it is both possible and beneficial to batch-normalize the hidden-to-hidden transition, thereby reducing internal covariate shift between time steps. We evaluate our proposal on various sequential problems such as sequence classification, language modeling and question answering. Our empirical results show that our batch-normalized LSTM consistently leads to faster convergence and improved generalization.

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#### Evolution of active categorical image classification via saccadic eye movement

Randal S. Olson, Jason H. Moore, Christoph Adami

Pattern recognition and classification is a central concern for modern information processing systems. In particular, one key challenge to image and video classification has been that the computational cost of image processing scales linearly with the number of pixels in the image or video. Here we present an intelligent machine (the "active categorical classifier," or ACC) that is inspired by the saccadic movements of the eye, and is capable of classifying images by selectively scanning only a portion of the image. We harness evolutionary computation to optimize the ACC on the MNIST hand-written digit classification task, and provide a proof-of-concept that the ACC works on noisy multi-class data. We further analyze the ACC and demonstrate its ability to classify images after viewing only a fraction of the pixels, and provide insight on future research paths to further improve upon the ACC presented here.

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#### Perceptual Losses for Real-Time Style Transfer and Super-Resolution

Justin Johnson, Alexandre Alahi, Li Fei-Fei

We consider image transformation problems, where an input image is transformed into an output image. Recent methods for such problems typically train feed-forward convolutional neural networks using a \emph{per-pixel} loss between the output and ground-truth images. Parallel work has shown that high-quality images can be generated by defining and optimizing \emph{perceptual} loss functions based on high-level features extracted from pretrained networks. We combine the benefits of both approaches, and propose the use of perceptual loss functions for training feed-forward networks for image transformation tasks. We show results on image style transfer, where a feed-forward network is trained to solve the optimization problem proposed by Gatys et al in real-time. Compared to the optimization-based method, our network gives similar qualitative results but is three orders of magnitude faster. We also experiment with single-image super-resolution, where replacing a per-pixel loss with a perceptual loss gives visually pleasing results.

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#### Pointing the Unknown Words

Caglar Gulcehre, Sungjin Ahn, Ramesh Nallapati, Bowen Zhou, Yoshua Bengio

The problem of rare and unknown words is an important issue that can potentially influence the performance of many NLP systems, including both the traditional count-based and the deep learning models. We propose a novel way to deal with the rare and unseen words for the neural network models using attention. Our model uses two softmax layers in order to predict the next word in conditional language models: one predicts the location of a word in the source sentence, and the other predicts a word in the shortlist vocabulary. At each time-step, the decision of which softmax layer to use choose adaptively made by an MLP which is conditioned on the context.~We motivate our work from a psychological evidence that humans naturally have a tendency to point towards objects in the context or the environment when the name of an object is not known.~We observe improvements on two tasks, neural machine translation on the Europarl English to French parallel corpora and text summarization on the Gigaword dataset using our proposed model.

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#### Improving Information Extraction by Acquiring External Evidence with Reinforcement Learning

Karthik Narasimhan, Adam Yala, Regina Barzilay

Most successful information extraction systems operate with access to a large collection of documents. In this work, we explore the task of acquiring and incorporating external evidence to improve extraction accuracy in domains where the amount of training data is scarce. This process entails issuing search queries, extraction from new sources and reconciliation of extracted values, which are repeated until sufficient evidence is collected. We approach the problem using a reinforcement learning framework where our model learns to select optimal actions based on contextual information. We employ a deep Q-network, trained to optimize a reward function that reflects extraction accuracy while penalizing extra effort. Our experiments on two databases -- of shooting incidents, and food adulteration cases -- demonstrate that our system significantly outperforms traditional extractors and a competitive meta-classifier baseline.

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#### A guide to convolution arithmetic for deep learning

Vincent Dumoulin, Francesco Visin

We introduce a guide to help deep learning practitioners understand and manipulate convolutional neural network architectures. The guide clarifies the relationship between various properties (input shape, kernel shape, zero padding, strides and output shape) of convolutional, pooling and transposed convolutional layers, as well as the relationship between convolutional and transposed convolutional layers. Relationships are derived for various cases, and are illustrated in order to make them intuitive.

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#### Hyperband: A Novel Bandit-Based Approach to Hyperparameter Optimization

Lisha Li, Kevin Jamieson, Giulia DeSalvo, Afshin Rostamizadeh, Ameet Talwalkar

Performance of machine learning algorithms depends critically on identifying a good set of hyperparameters. While current methods offer efficiencies by adaptively choosing new configurations to train, an alternative strategy is to adaptively allocate resources across the selected configurations. We formulate hyperparameter optimization as a pure-exploration non-stochastic infinitely many armed bandit problem where a predefined resource like iterations, data samples, or features is allocated to randomly sampled configurations. We introduce Hyperband for this framework and analyze its theoretical properties, providing several desirable guarantees. Furthermore, we compare Hyperband with state-of-the-art methods on a suite of hyperparameter optimization problems. We observe that Hyperband provides speedups of five times to more than an order of magnitude over state-of-the-art Bayesian optimization algorithms on a variety of deep-learning and kernel-based learning problems.

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#### Incorporating Copying Mechanism in Sequence-to-Sequence Learning

Jiatao Gu, Zhengdong Lu, Hang Li, Victor O. K. Li

We address an important problem in sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) learning referred to as copying, in which certain segments in the input sequence are selectively replicated in the output sequence. A similar phenomenon is observable in human language communication. For example, humans tend to repeat entity names or even long phrases in conversation. The challenge with regard to copying in Seq2Seq is that new machinery is needed to decide when to perform the operation. In this paper, we incorporate copying into neural network-based Seq2Seq learning and propose a new model called CopyNet with encoder-decoder structure. CopyNet can nicely integrate the regular way of word generation in the decoder with the new copying mechanism which can choose sub-sequences in the input sequence and put them at proper places in the output sequence. Our empirical study on both synthetic data sets and real world data sets demonstrates the efficacy of CopyNet. For example, CopyNet can outperform regular RNN-based model with remarkable margins on text summarization tasks.

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#### The Multiscale Laplacian Graph Kernel

Risi Kondor, Horace Pan

Many real world graphs, such as the graphs of molecules, exhibit structure at multiple different scales, but most existing kernels between graphs are either purely local or purely global in character. In contrast, by building a hierarchy of nested subgraphs, the Multiscale Laplacian Graph kernels (MLG kernels) that we define in this paper can account for structure at a range of different scales. At the heart of the MLG construction is another new graph kernel, called the Feature Space Laplacian Graph kernel (FLG kernel), which has the property that it can lift a base kernel defined on the vertices of two graphs to a kernel between the graphs. The MLG kernel applies such FLG kernels to subgraphs recursively. To make the MLG kernel computationally feasible, we also introduce a randomized projection procedure, similar to the Nystr\"om method, but for RKHS operators.

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#### Stochastic Variance Reduction for Nonconvex Optimization

Sashank J. Reddi, Ahmed Hefny, Suvrit Sra, Barnabas Poczos, Alex Smola

We study nonconvex finite-sum problems and analyze stochastic variance reduced gradient (SVRG) methods for them. SVRG and related methods have recently surged into prominence for convex optimization given their edge over stochastic gradient descent (SGD); but their theoretical analysis almost exclusively assumes convexity. In contrast, we prove non-asymptotic rates of convergence (to stationary points) of SVRG for nonconvex optimization, and show that it is provably faster than SGD and gradient descent. We also analyze a subclass of nonconvex problems on which SVRG attains linear convergence to the global optimum. We extend our analysis to mini-batch variants of SVRG, showing (theoretical) linear speedup due to mini-batching in parallel settings.

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