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Papers


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A Neural Knowledge Language Model

Sungjin Ahn, Heeyoul Choi, Tanel Pärnamaa, Yoshua Bengio

Communicating knowledge is a primary purpose of language. However, current language models have significant limitations in their ability to encode or decode knowledge. This is mainly because they acquire knowledge based on statistical co-occurrences, even if most of the knowledge words are rarely observed named entities. In this paper, we propose a Neural Knowledge Language Model (NKLM) which combines symbolic knowledge provided by knowledge graphs with RNN language models. At each time step, the model predicts a fact on which the observed word is supposed to be based. Then, a word is either generated from the vocabulary or copied from the knowledge graph. We train and test the model on a new dataset, WikiFacts. In experiments, we show that the NKLM significantly improves the perplexity while generating a much smaller number of unknown words. In addition, we demonstrate that the sampled descriptions include named entities which were used to be the unknown words in RNN language models.

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Instance Normalization: The Missing Ingredient for Fast Stylization

Dmitry Ulyanov, Andrea Vedaldi, Victor Lempitsky

It this paper we revisit the fast stylization method introduced in Ulyanov et. al. (2016). We show how a small change in the stylization architecture results in a significant qualitative improvement in the generated images. The change is limited to swapping batch normalization with instance normalization, and to apply the latter both at training and testing times. The resulting method can be used to train high-performance architectures for real-time image generation. The code will be made available at https://github.com/DmitryUlyanov/texture_nets.

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End-to-End Image Super-Resolution via Deep and Shallow Convolutional Networks

Yifan Wang, Lijun Wang, Hongyu Wang, Peihua Li

One impressive advantage of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is their ability to automatically learn feature representation from raw pixels, eliminating the need for hand-designed procedures. However, recent methods for single image super-resolution (SR) fail to maintain this advantage. They utilize CNNs in two decoupled steps, i.e., first upsampling the low resolution (LR) image to the high resolution (HR) size with hand-designed techniques (e.g., bicubic interpolation), and then applying CNNs on the upsampled LR image to reconstruct HR results. In this paper, we seek an alternative and propose a new image SR method, which jointly learns the feature extraction, upsampling and HR reconstruction modules, yielding a completely end-to-end trainable deep CNN. As opposed to existing approaches, the proposed method conducts upsampling in the latent feature space with filters that are optimized for the task of image SR. In addition, the HR reconstruction is performed in a multi-scale manner to simultaneously incorporate both short- and long-range contextual information, ensuring more accurate restoration of HR images. To facilitate network training, a new training approach is designed, which jointly trains the proposed deep network with a relatively shallow network, leading to faster convergence and more superior performance. The proposed method is extensively evaluated on widely adopted data sets and improves the performance of state-of-the-art methods with a considerable margin. Moreover, in-depth ablation studies are conducted to verify the contribution of different network designs to image SR, providing additional insights for future research.

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Higher-Order Factorization Machines

Mathieu Blondel, Akinori Fujino, Naonori Ueda, Masakazu Ishihata

Factorization machines (FMs) are a supervised learning approach that can use second-order feature combinations even when the data is very high-dimensional. Unfortunately, despite increasing interest in FMs, there exists to date no efficient training algorithm for higher-order FMs (HOFMs). In this paper, we present the first generic yet efficient algorithms for training arbitrary-order HOFMs. We also present new variants of HOFMs with shared parameters, which greatly reduce model size and prediction times while maintaining similar accuracy. We demonstrate the proposed approaches on four different link prediction tasks.

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Unsupervised Learning from Continuous Video in a Scalable Predictive Recurrent Network

Filip Piekniewski, Patryk Laurent, Csaba Petre, Micah Richert, Dimitry Fisher, Todd Hylton

Understanding visual reality involves acquiring common-sense knowledge about countless regularities in the visual world, e.g., how illumination alters the appearance of objects in a scene, and how motion changes their apparent spatial relationship. These regularities are hard to label for training supervised machine learning algorithms; consequently, algorithms need to learn these regularities from the real world in an unsupervised way. We present a novel network meta-architecture that can learn world dynamics from raw, continuous video. The components of this network can be implemented using any algorithm that possesses three key capabilities: prediction of a signal over time, reduction of signal dimensionality (compression), and the ability to use supplementary contextual information to inform the prediction. The presented architecture is highly-parallelized and scalable, and is implemented using localized connectivity, processing, and learning. We demonstrate an implementation of this architecture where the components are built from multi-layer perceptrons. We apply the implementation to create a system capable of stable and robust visual tracking of objects as seen by a moving camera. Results show performance on par with or exceeding state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. The tracker can be trained in either fully supervised or unsupervised-then-briefly-supervised regimes. Success of the briefly-supervised regime suggests that the unsupervised portion of the model extracts useful information about visual reality. The results suggest a new class of AI algorithms that uniquely combine prediction and scalability in a way that makes them suitable for learning from and --- and eventually acting within --- the real world.

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Man is to Computer Programmer as Woman is to Homemaker? Debiasing Word Embeddings

Tolga Bolukbasi, Kai-Wei Chang, James Zou, Venkatesh Saligrama, Adam Kalai

The blind application of machine learning runs the risk of amplifying biases present in data. Such a danger is facing us with word embedding, a popular framework to represent text data as vectors which has been used in many machine learning and natural language processing tasks. We show that even word embeddings trained on Google News articles exhibit female/male gender stereotypes to a disturbing extent. This raises concerns because their widespread use, as we describe, often tends to amplify these biases. Geometrically, gender bias is first shown to be captured by a direction in the word embedding. Second, gender neutral words are shown to be linearly separable from gender definition words in the word embedding. Using these properties, we provide a methodology for modifying an embedding to remove gender stereotypes, such as the association between between the words receptionist and female, while maintaining desired associations such as between the words queen and female. We define metrics to quantify both direct and indirect gender biases in embeddings, and develop algorithms to "debias" the embedding. Using crowd-worker evaluation as well as standard benchmarks, we empirically demonstrate that our algorithms significantly reduce gender bias in embeddings while preserving the its useful properties such as the ability to cluster related concepts and to solve analogy tasks. The resulting embeddings can be used in applications without amplifying gender bias.

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Layer Normalization

Jimmy Lei Ba, Jamie Ryan Kiros, Geoffrey E. Hinton

Training state-of-the-art, deep neural networks is computationally expensive. One way to reduce the training time is to normalize the activities of the neurons. A recently introduced technique called batch normalization uses the distribution of the summed input to a neuron over a mini-batch of training cases to compute a mean and variance which are then used to normalize the summed input to that neuron on each training case. This significantly reduces the training time in feed-forward neural networks. However, the effect of batch normalization is dependent on the mini-batch size and it is not obvious how to apply it to recurrent neural networks. In this paper, we transpose batch normalization into layer normalization by computing the mean and variance used for normalization from all of the summed inputs to the neurons in a layer on a single training case. Like batch normalization, we also give each neuron its own adaptive bias and gain which are applied after the normalization but before the non-linearity. Unlike batch normalization, layer normalization performs exactly the same computation at training and test times. It is also straightforward to apply to recurrent neural networks by computing the normalization statistics separately at each time step. Layer normalization is very effective at stabilizing the hidden state dynamics in recurrent networks. Empirically, we show that layer normalization can substantially reduce the training time compared with previously published techniques.

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Information-theoretical label embeddings for large-scale image classification

François Chollet

We present a method for training multi-label, massively multi-class image classification models, that is faster and more accurate than supervision via a sigmoid cross-entropy loss (logistic regression). Our method consists in embedding high-dimensional sparse labels onto a lower-dimensional dense sphere of unit-normed vectors, and treating the classification problem as a cosine proximity regression problem on this sphere. We test our method on a dataset of 300 million high-resolution images with 17,000 labels, where it yields considerably faster convergence, as well as a 7% higher mean average precision compared to logistic regression.

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Stochastic Backpropagation through Mixture Density Distributions

Alex Graves

The ability to backpropagate stochastic gradients through continuous latent distributions has been crucial to the emergence of variational autoencoders and stochastic gradient variational Bayes. The key ingredient is an unbiased and low-variance way of estimating gradients with respect to distribution parameters from gradients evaluated at distribution samples. The "reparameterization trick" provides a class of transforms yielding such estimators for many continuous distributions, including the Gaussian and other members of the location-scale family. However the trick does not readily extend to mixture density models, due to the difficulty of reparameterizing the discrete distribution over mixture weights. This report describes an alternative transform, applicable to any continuous multivariate distribution with a differentiable density function from which samples can be drawn, and uses it to derive an unbiased estimator for mixture density weight derivatives. Combined with the reparameterization trick applied to the individual mixture components, this estimator makes it straightforward to train variational autoencoders with mixture-distributed latent variables, or to perform stochastic variational inference with a mixture density variational posterior.

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Recurrent Highway Networks

Julian Georg Zilly, Rupesh Kumar Srivastava, Jan Koutník, Jürgen Schmidhuber

Many sequential processing tasks require complex nonlinear transition functions from one step to the next. However, recurrent neural networks with such 'deep' transition functions remain difficult to train, even when using Long Short-Term Memory networks. We introduce a novel theoretical analysis of recurrent networks based on Gersgorin's circle theorem that illuminates several modeling and optimization issues and improves our understanding of the LSTM cell. Based on this analysis we propose Recurrent Highway Networks, which are long not only in time but also in space, generalizing LSTMs to larger step-to-step depths. Experiments indicate that the proposed architecture results in complex but efficient models, beating previous models for character prediction on the Hutter Prize Wikipedia dataset and word-level language modeling on the Penn Treebank corpus.

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Recurrent Memory Array Structures

Kamil Rocki

The following report introduces ideas augmenting standard Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture with multiple memory cells per hidden unit in order to improve its generalization capabilities. It considers both deterministic and stochastic variants of memory operation. It is shown that the nondeterministic Array-LSTM approach improves state-of-the-art performance on character level text prediction achieving 1.402 BPC on enwik8 dataset. Furthermore, this report estabilishes baseline neural-based results of 1.12 BPC and 1.19 BPC for enwik9 and enwik10 datasets respectively.

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Deep Depth Super-Resolution : Learning Depth Super-Resolution using Deep Convolutional Neural Network

Xibin Song, Yuchao Dai, Xueying Qin

Depth image super-resolution is an extremely challenging task due to the information loss in sub-sampling. Deep convolutional neural network have been widely applied to color image super-resolution. Quite surprisingly, this success has not been matched to depth super-resolution. This is mainly due to the inherent difference between color and depth images. In this paper, we bridge up the gap and extend the success of deep convolutional neural network to depth super-resolution. The proposed deep depth super-resolution method learns the mapping from a low-resolution depth image to a high resolution one in an end-to-end style. Furthermore, to better regularize the learned depth map, we propose to exploit the depth field statistics and the local correlation between depth image and color image. These priors are integrated in an energy minimization formulation, where the deep neural network learns the unary term, the depth field statistics works as global model constraint and the color-depth correlation is utilized to enforce the local structure in depth images. Extensive experiments on various depth super-resolution benchmark datasets show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art depth image super-resolution methods with a margin.

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Deep Learning with Differential Privacy

Martín Abadi, Andy Chu, Ian Goodfellow, H. Brendan McMahan, Ilya Mironov, Kunal Talwar, Li Zhang

Machine learning techniques based on neural networks are achieving remarkable results in a wide variety of domains. Often, the training of models requires large, representative datasets, which may be crowdsourced and contain sensitive information. The models should not expose private information in these datasets. Addressing this goal, we develop new algorithmic techniques for learning and a refined analysis of privacy costs within the framework of differential privacy. Our implementation and experiments demonstrate that we can train deep neural networks with non-convex objectives, under a modest privacy budget, and at a manageable cost in software complexity, training efficiency, and model quality.

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Convolutional Neural Networks on Graphs with Fast Localized Spectral Filtering

Michaël Defferrard, Xavier Bresson, Pierre Vandergheynst

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have greatly improved state-of-the-art performances in a number of fields, notably computer vision and natural language processing. In this work, we are interested in generalizing the formulation of CNNs from low-dimensional regular Euclidean domains, where images (2D), videos (3D) and audios (1D) are represented, to high-dimensional irregular domains such as social networks or biological networks represented by graphs. This paper introduces a formulation of CNNs on graphs in the context of spectral graph theory. We borrow the fundamental tools from the emerging field of signal processing on graphs, which provides the necessary mathematical background and efficient numerical schemes to design localized graph filters efficient to learn and evaluate. As a matter of fact, we introduce the first technique that offers the same computational complexity than standard CNNs, while being universal to any graph structure. Numerical experiments on MNIST and 20NEWS demonstrate the ability of this novel deep learning system to learn local, stationary, and compositional features on graphs, as long as the graph is well-constructed.

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Compression of Neural Machine Translation Models via Pruning

Abigail See, Minh-Thang Luong, Christopher D. Manning

Neural Machine Translation (NMT), like many other deep learning domains, typically suffers from over-parameterization, resulting in large storage sizes. This paper examines three simple magnitude-based pruning schemes to compress NMT models, namely class-blind, class-uniform, and class-distribution, which differ in terms of how pruning thresholds are computed for the different classes of weights in the NMT architecture. We demonstrate the efficacy of weight pruning as a compression technique for a state-of-the-art NMT system. We show that an NMT model with over 200 million parameters can be pruned by 40% with very little performance loss as measured on the WMT'14 English-German translation task. This sheds light on the distribution of redundancy in the NMT architecture. Our main result is that with retraining, we can recover and even surpass the original performance with an 80%-pruned model.

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subgraph2vec: Learning Distributed Representations of Rooted Sub-graphs from Large Graphs

Annamalai Narayanan, Mahinthan Chandramohan, Lihui Chen, Yang Liu, Santhoshkumar Saminathan

In this paper, we present subgraph2vec, a novel approach for learning latent representations of rooted subgraphs from large graphs inspired by recent advancements in Deep Learning and Graph Kernels. These latent representations encode semantic substructure dependencies in a continuous vector space, which is easily exploited by statistical models for tasks such as graph classification, clustering, link prediction and community detection. subgraph2vec leverages on local information obtained from neighbourhoods of nodes to learn their latent representations in an unsupervised fashion. We demonstrate that subgraph vectors learnt by our approach could be used in conjunction with classifiers such as CNNs, SVMs and relational data clustering algorithms to achieve significantly superior accuracies. Also, we show that the subgraph vectors could be used for building a deep learning variant of Weisfeiler-Lehman graph kernel. Our experiments on several benchmark and large-scale real-world datasets reveal that subgraph2vec achieves significant improvements in accuracies over existing graph kernels on both supervised and unsupervised learning tasks. Specifically, on two realworld program analysis tasks, namely, code clone and malware detection, subgraph2vec outperforms state-of-the-art kernels by more than 17% and 4%, respectively.

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Sequence-Level Knowledge Distillation

Yoon Kim, Alexander M. Rush

Neural machine translation (NMT) offers a novel alternative formulation of translation that is potentially simpler than statistical approaches. However to reach competitive performance, NMT models need to be exceedingly large. In this paper we consider applying knowledge distillation approaches (Bucila et al., 2006; Hinton et al., 2015) that have proven successful for reducing the size of neural models in other domains to the problem of NMT. We demonstrate that standard knowledge distillation applied to word-level prediction can be effective for NMT, and also introduce two novel sequence-level versions of knowledge distillation that further improve performance, and somewhat surprisingly, seem to eliminate the need for beam search (even when applied on the original teacher model). Our best student model runs 10 times faster than its state-of-the-art teacher with little loss in performance. It is also significantly better than a baseline model trained without knowledge distillation: by 4.2/1.7 BLEU with greedy decoding/beam search. Applying weight pruning on top of knowledge distillation results in a student model that has 13 times fewer parameters than the original teacher model, with a decrease of 0.4 BLEU.

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Issues in evaluating semantic spaces using word analogies

Tal Linzen

The offset method for solving word analogies has become a standard evaluation tool for vector-space semantic models: it is considered desirable for a space to represent semantic relations as consistent vector offsets. We show that the method's reliance on cosine similarity conflates offset consistency with largely irrelevant neighborhood structure, and propose simple baselines that should be used to improve the utility of the method in vector space evaluation.

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Visual Analysis of Hidden State Dynamics in Recurrent Neural Networks

Hendrik Strobelt, Sebastian Gehrmann, Bernd Huber, Hanspeter Pfister, Alexander M. Rush

Recurrent neural networks, and in particular long short-term memory networks (LSTMs), are a remarkably effective tool for sequence modeling that learn a dense black-box hidden representation of their sequential input. Researchers interested in better understanding these models have studied the changes in hidden state representations over time and noticed some interpretable patterns but also significant noise. In this work, we present LSTMVis a visual analysis tool for recurrent neural networks with a focus on understanding these hidden state dynamics. The tool allows a user to select a hypothesis input range to focus on local state changes, to match these states changes to similar patterns in a large data set, and to align these results with domain specific structural annotations. We further show several use cases of the tool for analyzing specific hidden state properties on datasets containing nesting, phrase structure, and chord progressions, and demonstrate how the tool can be used to isolate patterns for further statistical analysis.

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Algorithmic Composition of Melodies with Deep Recurrent Neural Networks

Florian Colombo, Samuel P. Muscinelli, Alexander Seeholzer, Johanni Brea, Wulfram Gerstner

A big challenge in algorithmic composition is to devise a model that is both easily trainable and able to reproduce the long-range temporal dependencies typical of music. Here we investigate how artificial neural networks can be trained on a large corpus of melodies and turned into automated music composers able to generate new melodies coherent with the style they have been trained on. We employ gated recurrent unit networks that have been shown to be particularly efficient in learning complex sequential activations with arbitrary long time lags. Our model processes rhythm and melody in parallel while modeling the relation between these two features. Using such an approach, we were able to generate interesting complete melodies or suggest possible continuations of a melody fragment that is coherent with the characteristics of the fragment itself.

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