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Papers


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Visual Analysis of Hidden State Dynamics in Recurrent Neural Networks

Hendrik Strobelt, Sebastian Gehrmann, Bernd Huber, Hanspeter Pfister, Alexander M. Rush

Recurrent neural networks, and in particular long short-term memory networks (LSTMs), are a remarkably effective tool for sequence modeling that learn a dense black-box hidden representation of their sequential input. Researchers interested in better understanding these models have studied the changes in hidden state representations over time and noticed some interpretable patterns but also significant noise. In this work, we present LSTMVis a visual analysis tool for recurrent neural networks with a focus on understanding these hidden state dynamics. The tool allows a user to select a hypothesis input range to focus on local state changes, to match these states changes to similar patterns in a large data set, and to align these results with domain specific structural annotations. We further show several use cases of the tool for analyzing specific hidden state properties on datasets containing nesting, phrase structure, and chord progressions, and demonstrate how the tool can be used to isolate patterns for further statistical analysis.

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Algorithmic Composition of Melodies with Deep Recurrent Neural Networks

Florian Colombo, Samuel P. Muscinelli, Alexander Seeholzer, Johanni Brea, Wulfram Gerstner

A big challenge in algorithmic composition is to devise a model that is both easily trainable and able to reproduce the long-range temporal dependencies typical of music. Here we investigate how artificial neural networks can be trained on a large corpus of melodies and turned into automated music composers able to generate new melodies coherent with the style they have been trained on. We employ gated recurrent unit networks that have been shown to be particularly efficient in learning complex sequential activations with arbitrary long time lags. Our model processes rhythm and melody in parallel while modeling the relation between these two features. Using such an approach, we were able to generate interesting complete melodies or suggest possible continuations of a melody fragment that is coherent with the characteristics of the fragment itself.

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Tagger: Deep Unsupervised Perceptual Grouping

Klaus Greff, Antti Rasmus, Mathias Berglund, Tele Hotloo Hao, Jürgen Schmidhuber, Harri Valpola

We present a framework for efficient perceptual inference that explicitly reasons about the segmentation of its inputs and features. Rather than being trained for any specific segmentation, our framework learns the grouping process in an unsupervised manner or alongside any supervised task. By enriching the representations of a neural network, we enable it to group the representations of different objects in an iterative manner. By allowing the system to amortize the iterative inference of the groupings, we achieve very fast convergence. In contrast to many other recently proposed methods for addressing multi-object scenes, our system does not assume the inputs to be images and can therefore directly handle other modalities. For multi-digit classification of very cluttered images that require texture segmentation, our method offers improved classification performance over convolutional networks despite being fully connected. Furthermore, we observe that our system greatly improves on the semi-supervised result of a baseline Ladder network on our dataset, indicating that segmentation can also improve sample efficiency.

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On Multiplicative Integration with Recurrent Neural Networks

Yuhuai Wu, Saizheng Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yoshua Bengio, Ruslan Salakhutdinov

We introduce a general and simple structural design called Multiplicative Integration (MI) to improve recurrent neural networks (RNNs). MI changes the way in which information from difference sources flows and is integrated in the computational building block of an RNN, while introducing almost no extra parameters. The new structure can be easily embedded into many popular RNN models, including LSTMs and GRUs. We empirically analyze its learning behaviour and conduct evaluations on several tasks using different RNN models. Our experimental results demonstrate that Multiplicative Integration can provide a substantial performance boost over many of the existing RNN models.

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Concrete Problems in AI Safety

Dario Amodei, Chris Olah, Jacob Steinhardt, Paul Christiano, John Schulman, Dan Mané

Rapid progress in machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) has brought increasing attention to the potential impacts of AI technologies on society. In this paper we discuss one such potential impact: the problem of accidents in machine learning systems, defined as unintended and harmful behavior that may emerge from poor design of real-world AI systems. We present a list of five practical research problems related to accident risk, categorized according to whether the problem originates from having the wrong objective function ("avoiding side effects" and "avoiding reward hacking"), an objective function that is too expensive to evaluate frequently ("scalable supervision"), or undesirable behavior during the learning process ("safe exploration" and "distributional shift"). We review previous work in these areas as well as suggesting research directions with a focus on relevance to cutting-edge AI systems. Finally, we consider the high-level question of how to think most productively about the safety of forward-looking applications of AI.

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Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network

Xu-Yao Zhang, Fei Yin, Yan-Ming Zhang, Cheng-Lin Liu, Yoshua Bengio

Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

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Colorization for Image Compression

Mohammad Haris Baig, Lorenzo Torresani

In this work we focus on the problem of colorization for image compression. Since color information occupies a large proportion of the total storage size of an image, a method that can predict accurate color from its grayscale version can produce dramatic reduction in image file size. But colorization for compression poses several challenges. First, while colorization for artistic purposes simply involves predicting plausible chroma, colorization for compression requires generating output colors that are as close as possible to the ground truth. Second, many objects in the real world exhibit multiple possible colors. Thus, to disambiguate the colorization problem some additional information must be stored to reproduce the true colors with good accuracy. To account for the multimodal color distribution of objects we propose a deep tree-structured network that generates multiple color hypotheses for every pixel from a grayscale picture (as opposed to a single color produced by most prior colorization approaches). We show how to leverage the multimodal output of our model to reproduce with high fidelity the true colors of an image by storing very little additional information. In the experiments we show that our proposed method outperforms traditional JPEG color coding by a large margin, producing colors that are nearly indistinguishable from the ground truth at the storage cost of just a few hundred bytes for high-resolution pictures!

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DoReFa-Net: Training Low Bitwidth Convolutional Neural Networks with Low Bitwidth Gradients

Shuchang Zhou, Yuxin Wu, Zekun Ni, Xinyu Zhou, He Wen, Yuheng Zou

We propose DoReFa-Net, a method to train convolutional neural networks that have low bitwidth weights and activations using low bitwidth parameter gradients. In particular, during backward pass, parameter gradients are stochastically quantized to low bitwidth numbers before being propagated to convolutional layers. As convolutions during forward/backward passes can now operate on low bitwidth weights and activations/gradients respectively, DoReFa-Net can use bit convolution kernels to accelerate both training and inference. Moreover, as bit convolutions can be efficiently implemented on CPU, FPGA, ASIC and GPU, DoReFa-Net opens the way to accelerate training of low bitwidth neural network on these hardware. Our experiments on SVHN and ImageNet datasets prove that DoReFa-Net can achieve comparable prediction accuracy as 32-bit counterparts. For example, a DoReFa-Net derived from AlexNet that has 1-bit weights, 2-bit activations, can be trained from scratch using 6-bit gradients to get 46.1\% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet validation set. The DoReFa-Net AlexNet model is released publicly.

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Quantifying and Reducing Stereotypes in Word Embeddings

Tolga Bolukbasi, Kai-Wei Chang, James Zou, Venkatesh Saligrama, Adam Kalai

Machine learning algorithms are optimized to model statistical properties of the training data. If the input data reflects stereotypes and biases of the broader society, then the output of the learning algorithm also captures these stereotypes. In this paper, we initiate the study of gender stereotypes in {\em word embedding}, a popular framework to represent text data. As their use becomes increasingly common, applications can inadvertently amplify unwanted stereotypes. We show across multiple datasets that the embeddings contain significant gender stereotypes, especially with regard to professions. We created a novel gender analogy task and combined it with crowdsourcing to systematically quantify the gender bias in a given embedding. We developed an efficient algorithm that reduces gender stereotype using just a handful of training examples while preserving the useful geometric properties of the embedding. We evaluated our algorithm on several metrics. While we focus on male/female stereotypes, our framework may be applicable to other types of embedding biases.

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Early Visual Concept Learning with Unsupervised Deep Learning

Irina Higgins, Loic Matthey, Xavier Glorot, Arka Pal, Benigno Uria, Charles Blundell, Shakir Mohamed, Alexander Lerchner

Automated discovery of early visual concepts from raw image data is a major open challenge in AI research. Addressing this problem, we propose an unsupervised approach for learning disentangled representations of the underlying factors of variation. We draw inspiration from neuroscience, and show how this can be achieved in an unsupervised generative model by applying the same learning pressures as have been suggested to act in the ventral visual stream in the brain. By enforcing redundancy reduction, encouraging statistical independence, and exposure to data with transform continuities analogous to those to which human infants are exposed, we obtain a variational autoencoder (VAE) framework capable of learning disentangled factors. Our approach makes few assumptions and works well across a wide variety of datasets. Furthermore, our solution has useful emergent properties, such as zero-shot inference and an intuitive understanding of "objectness".

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Exponential expressivity in deep neural networks through transient chaos

Ben Poole, Subhaneil Lahiri, Maithra Raghu, Jascha Sohl-Dickstein, Surya Ganguli

We combine Riemannian geometry with the mean field theory of high dimensional chaos to study the nature of signal propagation in generic, deep neural networks with random weights. Our results reveal an order-to-chaos expressivity phase transition, with networks in the chaotic phase computing nonlinear functions whose global curvature grows exponentially with depth but not width. We prove this generic class of deep random functions cannot be efficiently computed by any shallow network, going beyond prior work restricted to the analysis of single functions. Moreover, we formalize and quantitatively demonstrate the long conjectured idea that deep networks can disentangle highly curved manifolds in input space into flat manifolds in hidden space. Our theoretical analysis of the expressive power of deep networks broadly applies to arbitrary nonlinearities, and provides a quantitative underpinning for previously abstract notions about the geometry of deep functions.

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On the Expressive Power of Deep Neural Networks

Maithra Raghu, Ben Poole, Jon Kleinberg, Surya Ganguli, Jascha Sohl-Dickstein

We propose a new approach to the problem of neural network expressivity, which seeks to characterize how structural properties of a neural network family affect the functions it is able to compute. Our approach is based on an interrelated set of measures of expressivity, unified by the novel notion of trajectory length, which measures how the output of a network changes as the input sweeps along a one-dimensional path. Our findings can be summarized as follows: (1) The complexity of the computed function grows exponentially with depth. (2) All weights are not equal: trained networks are more sensitive to their lower (initial) layer weights. (3) Regularizing on trajectory length (trajectory regularization) is a simpler alternative to batch normalization, with the same performance.

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Conditional Image Generation with PixelCNN Decoders

Aaron van den Oord, Nal Kalchbrenner, Oriol Vinyals, Lasse Espeholt, Alex Graves, Koray Kavukcuoglu

This work explores conditional image generation with a new image density model based on the PixelCNN architecture. The model can be conditioned on any vector, including descriptive labels or tags, or latent embeddings created by other networks. When conditioned on class labels from the ImageNet database, the model is able to generate diverse, realistic scenes representing distinct animals, objects, landscapes and structures. When conditioned on an embedding produced by a convolutional network given a single image of an unseen face, it generates a variety of new portraits of the same person with different facial expressions, poses and lighting conditions. We also show that conditional PixelCNN can serve as a powerful decoder in an image autoencoder. Additionally, the gated convolutional layers in the proposed model improve the log-likelihood of PixelCNN to match the state-of-the-art performance of PixelRNN on ImageNet, with greatly reduced computational cost.

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Machine Learning meets Data-Driven Journalism: Boosting International Understanding and Transparency in News Coverage

Elena Erdmann, Karin Boczek, Lars Koppers, Gerret von Nordheim, Christian Pölitz, Alejandro Molina, Katharina Morik, Henrik Müller, Jörg Rahnenführer, Kristian Kersting

Migration crisis, climate change or tax havens: Global challenges need global solutions. But agreeing on a joint approach is difficult without a common ground for discussion. Public spheres are highly segmented because news are mainly produced and received on a national level. Gain- ing a global view on international debates about important issues is hindered by the enormous quantity of news and by language barriers. Media analysis usually focuses only on qualitative re- search. In this position statement, we argue that it is imperative to pool methods from machine learning, journalism studies and statistics to help bridging the segmented data of the international public sphere, using the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) as a case study.

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Improving Variational Inference with Inverse Autoregressive Flow

Diederik P. Kingma, Tim Salimans, Rafal Jozefowicz, Xi Chen, Ilya Sutskever, Max Welling

The framework of normalizing flows provides a general strategy for flexible variational inference of posteriors over latent variables. We propose a new type of normalizing flow, inverse autoregressive flow (IAF), that, in contrast to earlier published flows, scales well to high-dimensional latent spaces. The proposed flow consists of a chain of invertible transformations, where each transformation is based on an autoregressive neural network. In experiments, we show that IAF significantly improves upon diagonal Gaussian approximate posteriors. In addition, we demonstrate that a novel type of variational autoencoder, coupled with IAF, is competitive with neural autoregressive models in terms of attained log-likelihood on natural images, while allowing significantly faster synthesis.

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Strategic Attentive Writer for Learning Macro-Actions

Alexander, Vezhnevets, Volodymyr Mnih, John Agapiou, Simon Osindero, Alex Graves, Oriol Vinyals, Koray Kavukcuoglu

We present a novel deep recurrent neural network architecture that learns to build implicit plans in an end-to-end manner by purely interacting with an environment in reinforcement learning setting. The network builds an internal plan, which is continuously updated upon observation of the next input from the environment. It can also partition this internal representation into contiguous sub- sequences by learning for how long the plan can be committed to - i.e. followed without re-planing. Combining these properties, the proposed model, dubbed STRategic Attentive Writer (STRAW) can learn high-level, temporally abstracted macro- actions of varying lengths that are solely learnt from data without any prior information. These macro-actions enable both structured exploration and economic computation. We experimentally demonstrate that STRAW delivers strong improvements on several ATARI games by employing temporally extended planning strategies (e.g. Ms. Pacman and Frostbite). It is at the same time a general algorithm that can be applied on any sequence data. To that end, we also show that when trained on text prediction task, STRAW naturally predicts frequent n-grams (instead of macro-actions), demonstrating the generality of the approach.

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Progressive Neural Networks

Andrei A. Rusu, Neil C. Rabinowitz, Guillaume Desjardins, Hubert Soyer, James Kirkpatrick, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Razvan Pascanu, Raia Hadsell

Learning to solve complex sequences of tasks--while both leveraging transfer and avoiding catastrophic forgetting--remains a key obstacle to achieving human-level intelligence. The progressive networks approach represents a step forward in this direction: they are immune to forgetting and can leverage prior knowledge via lateral connections to previously learned features. We evaluate this architecture extensively on a wide variety of reinforcement learning tasks (Atari and 3D maze games), and show that it outperforms common baselines based on pretraining and finetuning. Using a novel sensitivity measure, we demonstrate that transfer occurs at both low-level sensory and high-level control layers of the learned policy.

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Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent

Marcin Andrychowicz, Misha Denil, Sergio Gomez, Matthew W. Hoffman, David Pfau, Tom Schaul, Nando de Freitas

The move from hand-designed features to learned features in machine learning has been wildly successful. In spite of this, optimization algorithms are still designed by hand. In this paper we show how the design of an optimization algorithm can be cast as a learning problem, allowing the algorithm to learn to exploit structure in the problems of interest in an automatic way. Our learned algorithms, implemented by LSTMs, outperform generic, hand-designed competitors on the tasks for which they are trained, and also generalize well to new tasks with similar structure. We demonstrate this on a number of tasks, including simple convex problems, training neural networks, and styling images with neural art.

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DeepMath - Deep Sequence Models for Premise Selection

Alex A. Alemi, Francois Chollet, Geoffrey Irving, Christian Szegedy, Josef Urban

We study the effectiveness of neural sequence models for premise selection in automated theorem proving, one of the main bottlenecks in the formalization of mathematics. We propose a two stage approach for this task that yields good results for the premise selection task on the Mizar corpus while avoiding the hand-engineered features of existing state-of-the-art models. To our knowledge, this is the first time deep learning has been applied to theorem proving.

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Rationalizing Neural Predictions

Tao Lei, Regina Barzilay, Tommi Jaakkola

Prediction without justification has limited applicability. As a remedy, we learn to extract pieces of input text as justifications -- rationales -- that are tailored to be short and coherent, yet sufficient for making the same prediction. Our approach combines two modular components, generator and encoder, which are trained to operate well together. The generator specifies a distribution over text fragments as candidate rationales and these are passed through the encoder for prediction. Rationales are never given during training. Instead, the model is regularized by desiderata for rationales. We evaluate the approach on multi-aspect sentiment analysis against manually annotated test cases. Our approach outperforms attention-based baseline by a significant margin. We also successfully illustrate the method on the question retrieval task.

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