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Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent

Marcin Andrychowicz, Misha Denil, Sergio Gomez, Matthew W. Hoffman, David Pfau, Tom Schaul, Nando de Freitas

The move from hand-designed features to learned features in machine learning has been wildly successful. In spite of this, optimization algorithms are still designed by hand. In this paper we show how the design of an optimization algorithm can be cast as a learning problem, allowing the algorithm to learn to exploit structure in the problems of interest in an automatic way. Our learned algorithms, implemented by LSTMs, outperform generic, hand-designed competitors on the tasks for which they are trained, and also generalize well to new tasks with similar structure. We demonstrate this on a number of tasks, including simple convex problems, training neural networks, and styling images with neural art.

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DeepMath - Deep Sequence Models for Premise Selection

Alex A. Alemi, Francois Chollet, Geoffrey Irving, Christian Szegedy, Josef Urban

We study the effectiveness of neural sequence models for premise selection in automated theorem proving, one of the main bottlenecks in the formalization of mathematics. We propose a two stage approach for this task that yields good results for the premise selection task on the Mizar corpus while avoiding the hand-engineered features of existing state-of-the-art models. To our knowledge, this is the first time deep learning has been applied to theorem proving.

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Rationalizing Neural Predictions

Tao Lei, Regina Barzilay, Tommi Jaakkola

Prediction without justification has limited applicability. As a remedy, we learn to extract pieces of input text as justifications -- rationales -- that are tailored to be short and coherent, yet sufficient for making the same prediction. Our approach combines two modular components, generator and encoder, which are trained to operate well together. The generator specifies a distribution over text fragments as candidate rationales and these are passed through the encoder for prediction. Rationales are never given during training. Instead, the model is regularized by desiderata for rationales. We evaluate the approach on multi-aspect sentiment analysis against manually annotated test cases. Our approach outperforms attention-based baseline by a significant margin. We also successfully illustrate the method on the question retrieval task.

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Matching Networks for One Shot Learning

Oriol Vinyals, Charles Blundell, Timothy Lillicrap, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Daan Wierstra

Learning from a few examples remains a key challenge in machine learning. Despite recent advances in important domains such as vision and language, the standard supervised deep learning paradigm does not offer a satisfactory solution for learning new concepts rapidly from little data. In this work, we employ ideas from metric learning based on deep neural features and from recent advances that augment neural networks with external memories. Our framework learns a network that maps a small labelled support set and an unlabelled example to its label, obviating the need for fine-tuning to adapt to new class types. We then define one-shot learning problems on vision (using Omniglot, ImageNet) and language tasks. Our algorithm improves one-shot accuracy on ImageNet from 87.6% to 93.2% and from 88.0% to 93.8% on Omniglot compared to competing approaches. We also demonstrate the usefulness of the same model on language modeling by introducing a one-shot task on the Penn Treebank.

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External Lexical Information for Multilingual Part-of-Speech Tagging

Benoît Sagot

Morphosyntactic lexicons and word vector representations have both proven useful for improving the accuracy of statistical part-of-speech taggers. Here we compare the performances of four systems on datasets covering 16 languages, two of these systems being feature-based (MEMMs and CRFs) and two of them being neural-based (bi-LSTMs). We show that, on average, all four approaches perform similarly and reach state-of-the-art results. Yet better performances are obtained with our feature-based models on lexically richer datasets (e.g. for morphologically rich languages), whereas neural-based results are higher on datasets with less lexical variability (e.g. for English). These conclusions hold in particular for the MEMM models relying on our system MElt, which benefited from newly designed features. This shows that, under certain conditions, feature-based approaches enriched with morphosyntactic lexicons are competitive with respect to neural methods.

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InfoGAN: Interpretable Representation Learning by Information Maximizing Generative Adversarial Nets

Xi Chen, Yan Duan, Rein Houthooft, John Schulman, Ilya Sutskever, Pieter Abbeel

This paper describes InfoGAN, an information-theoretic extension to the Generative Adversarial Network that is able to learn disentangled representations in a completely unsupervised manner. InfoGAN is a generative adversarial network that also maximizes the mutual information between a small subset of the latent variables and the observation. We derive a lower bound to the mutual information objective that can be optimized efficiently, and show that our training procedure can be interpreted as a variation of the Wake-Sleep algorithm. Specifically, InfoGAN successfully disentangles writing styles from digit shapes on the MNIST dataset, pose from lighting of 3D rendered images, and background digits from the central digit on the SVHN dataset. It also discovers visual concepts that include hair styles, presence/absence of eyeglasses, and emotions on the CelebA face dataset. Experiments show that InfoGAN learns interpretable representations that are competitive with representations learned by existing fully supervised methods.

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Improved Techniques for Training GANs

Tim Salimans, Ian Goodfellow, Wojciech Zaremba, Vicki Cheung, Alec Radford, Xi Chen

We present a variety of new architectural features and training procedures that we apply to the generative adversarial networks (GANs) framework. We focus on two applications of GANs: semi-supervised learning, and the generation of images that humans find visually realistic. Unlike most work on generative models, our primary goal is not to train a model that assigns high likelihood to test data, nor do we require the model to be able to learn well without using any labels. Using our new techniques, we achieve state-of-the-art results in semi-supervised classification on MNIST, CIFAR-10 and SVHN. The generated images are of high quality as confirmed by a visual Turing test: our model generates MNIST samples that humans cannot distinguish from real data, and CIFAR-10 samples that yield a human error rate of 21.3%. We also present ImageNet samples with unprecedented resolution and show that our methods enable the model to learn recognizable features of ImageNet classes.

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Memory-Efficient Backpropagation Through Time

Audrūnas Gruslys, Remi Munos, Ivo Danihelka, Marc Lanctot, Alex Graves

We propose a novel approach to reduce memory consumption of the backpropagation through time (BPTT) algorithm when training recurrent neural networks (RNNs). Our approach uses dynamic programming to balance a trade-off between caching of intermediate results and recomputation. The algorithm is capable of tightly fitting within almost any user-set memory budget while finding an optimal execution policy minimizing the computational cost. Computational devices have limited memory capacity and maximizing a computational performance given a fixed memory budget is a practical use-case. We provide asymptotic computational upper bounds for various regimes. The algorithm is particularly effective for long sequences. For sequences of length 1000, our algorithm saves 95\% of memory usage while using only one third more time per iteration than the standard BPTT.

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Key-Value Memory Networks for Directly Reading Documents

Alexander Miller, Adam Fisch, Jesse Dodge, Amir-Hossein Karimi, Antoine Bordes, Jason Weston

Directly reading documents and being able to answer questions from them is an unsolved challenge. To avoid its inherent difficulty, question answering (QA) has been directed towards using Knowledge Bases (KBs) instead, which has proven effective. Unfortunately KBs often suffer from being too restrictive, as the schema cannot support certain types of answers, and too sparse, e.g. Wikipedia contains much more information than Freebase. In this work we introduce a new method, Key-Value Memory Networks, that makes reading documents more viable by utilizing different encodings in the addressing and output stages of the memory read operation. To compare using KBs, information extraction or Wikipedia documents directly in a single framework we construct an analysis tool, WikiMovies, a QA dataset that contains raw text alongside a preprocessed KB, in the domain of movies. Our method reduces the gap between all three settings. It also achieves state-of-the-art results on the existing WikiQA benchmark.

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Edinburgh Neural Machine Translation Systems for WMT 16

Rico Sennrich, Barry Haddow, Alexandra Birch

We participated in the WMT 2016 shared news translation task by building neural translation systems for four language pairs, each trained in both directions: English<->Czech, English<->German, English<->Romanian and English<->Russian. Our systems are based on an attentional encoder-decoder, using BPE subword segmentation for open-vocabulary translation with a fixed vocabulary. We experimented with using automatic back-translations of the monolingual News corpus as additional training data, pervasive dropout, and target-bidirectional models. All reported methods give substantial improvements, and we see improvements of 4.3--11.2 BLEU over our baseline systems. In the human evaluation, our systems were the (tied) best constrained system for 7 out of 8 translation directions in which we participated.

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Safe and Efficient Off-Policy Reinforcement Learning

Rémi Munos, Tom Stepleton, Anna Harutyunyan, Marc G. Bellemare

In this work, we take a fresh look at some old and new algorithms for off-policy, return-based reinforcement learning. Expressing these in a common form, we derive a novel algorithm, Retrace($\lambda$), with three desired properties: (1) low variance; (2) safety, as it safely uses samples collected from any behaviour policy, whatever its degree of "off-policyness"; and (3) efficiency, as it makes the best use of samples collected from near on-policy behaviour policies. We analyse the contractive nature of the related operator under both off-policy policy evaluation and control settings and derive online sample-based algorithms. To our knowledge, this is the first return-based off-policy control algorithm converging a.s. to $Q^*$ without the GLIE assumption (Greedy in the Limit with Infinite Exploration). As a corollary, we prove the convergence of Watkins' Q($\lambda$), which was still an open problem. We illustrate the benefits of Retrace($\lambda$) on a standard suite of Atari 2600 games.

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Convolution by Evolution: Differentiable Pattern Producing Networks

Chrisantha Fernando, Dylan Banarse, Malcolm Reynolds, Frederic Besse, David Pfau, Max Jaderberg, Marc Lanctot, Daan Wierstra

In this work we introduce a differentiable version of the Compositional Pattern Producing Network, called the DPPN. Unlike a standard CPPN, the topology of a DPPN is evolved but the weights are learned. A Lamarckian algorithm, that combines evolution and learning, produces DPPNs to reconstruct an image. Our main result is that DPPNs can be evolved/trained to compress the weights of a denoising autoencoder from 157684 to roughly 200 parameters, while achieving a reconstruction accuracy comparable to a fully connected network with more than two orders of magnitude more parameters. The regularization ability of the DPPN allows it to rediscover (approximate) convolutional network architectures embedded within a fully connected architecture. Such convolutional architectures are the current state of the art for many computer vision applications, so it is satisfying that DPPNs are capable of discovering this structure rather than having to build it in by design. DPPNs exhibit better generalization when tested on the Omniglot dataset after being trained on MNIST, than directly encoded fully connected autoencoders. DPPNs are therefore a new framework for integrating learning and evolution.

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Learning Language Games through Interaction

Sida I. Wang, Percy Liang, Christopher D. Manning

We introduce a new language learning setting relevant to building adaptive natural language interfaces. It is inspired by Wittgenstein's language games: a human wishes to accomplish some task (e.g., achieving a certain configuration of blocks), but can only communicate with a computer, who performs the actual actions (e.g., removing all red blocks). The computer initially knows nothing about language and therefore must learn it from scratch through interaction, while the human adapts to the computer's capabilities. We created a game in a blocks world and collected interactions from 100 people playing it. First, we analyze the humans' strategies, showing that using compositionality and avoiding synonyms correlates positively with task performance. Second, we compare computer strategies, showing how to quickly learn a semantic parsing model from scratch, and that modeling pragmatics further accelerates learning for successful players.

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ENet: A Deep Neural Network Architecture for Real-Time Semantic Segmentation

Adam Paszke, Abhishek Chaurasia, Sangpil Kim, Eugenio Culurciello

The ability to perform pixel-wise semantic segmentation in real-time is of paramount importance in mobile applications. Recent deep neural networks aimed at this task have the disadvantage of requiring a large number of floating point operations and have long run-times that hinder their usability. In this paper, we propose a novel deep neural network architecture named ENet (efficient neural network), created specifically for tasks requiring low latency operation. ENet is up to 18$\times$ faster, requires 75$\times$ less FLOPs, has 79$\times$ less parameters, and provides similar or better accuracy to existing models. We have tested it on CamVid, Cityscapes and SUN datasets and report on comparisons with existing state-of-the-art methods, and the trade-offs between accuracy and processing time of a network. We present performance measurements of the proposed architecture on embedded systems and suggest possible software improvements that could make ENet even faster.

Captured tweets and retweets: 134


Memory-enhanced Decoder for Neural Machine Translation

Mingxuan Wang, Zhengdong Lu, Hang Li, Qun Liu

We propose to enhance the RNN decoder in a neural machine translator (NMT) with external memory, as a natural but powerful extension to the state in the decoding RNN. This memory-enhanced RNN decoder is called \textsc{MemDec}. At each time during decoding, \textsc{MemDec} will read from this memory and write to this memory once, both with content-based addressing. Unlike the unbounded memory in previous work\cite{RNNsearch} to store the representation of source sentence, the memory in \textsc{MemDec} is a matrix with pre-determined size designed to better capture the information important for the decoding process at each time step. Our empirical study on Chinese-English translation shows that it can improve by $4.8$ BLEU upon Groundhog and $5.3$ BLEU upon on Moses, yielding the best performance achieved with the same training set.

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A Decomposable Attention Model for Natural Language Inference

Ankur P. Parikh, Oscar Täckström, Dipanjan Das, Jakob Uszkoreit

We propose a simple neural architecture for natural language inference. Our approach uses attention to decompose the problem into subproblems that can be solved separately, thus making it trivially parallelizable. On the Stanford Natural Language Inference (SNLI) dataset, we obtain state-of-the-art results with almost an order of magnitude fewer parameters than previous work and without relying on any word-order information. Adding intra-sentence attention that takes a minimum amount of order into account yields further improvements.

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Unifying Count-Based Exploration and Intrinsic Motivation

Marc G. Bellemare, Sriram Srinivasan, Georg Ostrovski, Tom Schaul, David Saxton, Remi Munos

We consider an agent's uncertainty about its environment and the problem of generalizing this uncertainty across observations. Specifically, we focus on the problem of exploration in non-tabular reinforcement learning. Drawing inspiration from the intrinsic motivation literature, we use sequential density models to measure uncertainty, and propose a novel algorithm for deriving a pseudo-count from an arbitrary sequential density model. This technique enables us to generalize count-based exploration algorithms to the non-tabular case. We apply our ideas to Atari 2600 games, providing sensible pseudo-counts from raw pixels. We transform these pseudo-counts into intrinsic rewards and obtain significantly improved exploration in a number of hard games, including the infamously difficult Montezuma's Revenge.

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Deep Reinforcement Learning for Dialogue Generation

Jiwei Li, Will Monroe, Alan Ritter, Michel Galley, Jianfeng Gao, Dan Jurafsky

Recent neural models of dialogue generation offer great promise for generating responses for conversational agents, but tend to be shortsighted, predicting utterances one at a time while ignoring their influence on future outcomes. Modeling the future direction of a dialogue is crucial to generating coherent, interesting dialogues, a need which led traditional NLP models of dialogue to draw on reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show how to integrate these goals, applying deep reinforcement learning to model future reward in chatbot dialogue. The model simulates dialogues between two virtual agents, using policy gradient methods to reward sequences that display three useful conversational properties: informativity (non-repetitive turns), coherence, and ease of answering (related to forward-looking function). We evaluate our model on diversity, length as well as with human judges, showing that the proposed algorithm generates more interactive responses and manages to foster a more sustained conversation in dialogue simulation. This work marks a first step towards learning a neural conversational model based on the long-term success of dialogues.

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Multimodal Residual Learning for Visual QA

Jin-Hwa Kim, Sang-Woo Lee, Dong-Hyun Kwak, Min-Oh Heo, Jeonghee Kim, Jung-Woo Ha, Byoung-Tak Zhang

Deep neural networks continue to advance the state-of-the-art of image recognition tasks with various methods. However, applications of these methods to multimodality remain limited. We present Multimodal Residual Networks (MRN) for the multimodal residual learning of visual question-answering, which extends the idea of the deep residual learning. Unlike the deep residual learning, MRN effectively learns the joint representation from vision and language information. The main idea is to use element-wise multiplication for the joint residual mappings exploiting the residual learning of the attentional models in recent studies. Various alternative models introduced by multimodality are explored based on our study. We achieve the state-of-the-art results on the Visual QA dataset for both Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice tasks. Moreover, we introduce a novel method to visualize the attention effect of the joint representations for each learning block using back-propagation algorithm, even though the visual features are collapsed without spatial information.

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Modelling Symbolic Music: Beyond the Piano Roll

Christian Walder

In this paper, we consider the problem of probabilistically modelling symbolic music data. We introduce a representation which reduces polyphonic music to a univariate categorical sequence. In this way, we are able to apply state of the art natural language processing techniques, namely the long short-term memory sequence model. The representation we employ permits arbitrary rhythmic structure, which we assume to be given. We show that our model is effective on four out of four piano roll based benchmark datasets. We further improve our model by augmenting our training data set with transpositions of the original pieces through all musical keys, thereby convincingly advancing the state of the art on these benchmark problems. We also fit models to music which is unconstrained in its rhythmic structure, discuss the properties of this model, and provide musical samples which are more sophisticated than previously possible with this class of recurrent neural network sequence models. We also provide our newly preprocessed data set of non piano-roll music data.

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