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Revisiting Distributed Synchronous SGD

Jianmin Chen, Rajat Monga, Samy Bengio, Rafal Jozefowicz

The recent success of deep learning approaches for domains like speech recognition (Hinton et al., 2012) and computer vision (Ioffe & Szegedy, 2015) stems from many algorithmic improvements but also from the fact that the size of available training data has grown significantly over the years, together with the computing power, in terms of both CPUs and GPUs. While a single GPU often provides algorithmic simplicity and speed up to a given scale of data and model, there exist an operating point where a distributed implementation of training algorithms for deep architectures becomes necessary. Previous works have been focusing on asynchronous SGD training, which works well up to a few dozens of workers for some models. In this work, we show that synchronous SGD training, with the help of backup workers, can not only achieve better accuracy, but also reach convergence faster with respect to wall time, i.e. use more workers more efficiently.

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Achieving Open Vocabulary Neural Machine Translation with Hybrid Word-Character Models

Minh-Thang Luong, Christopher D. Manning

Nearly all previous work on neural machine translation (NMT) has used quite restricted vocabularies, perhaps with a subsequent method to patch in unknown words. This paper presents a novel word-character solution to achieving open vocabulary NMT. We build hybrid systems that translate mostly at the word level and consult the character components for rare words. Our character-level recurrent neural networks compute source word representations and recover unknown target words when needed. The twofold advantage of such a hybrid approach is that it is much faster and easier to train than character-based ones; at the same time, it never produces unknown words as in the case of word-based models. On the WMT'15 English to Czech translation task, this hybrid approach offers an addition boost of +2.1-11.4 BLEU points over models that already handle unknown words. Our best system achieves a new state-of-the-art result with 20.7 BLEU score. We demonstrate that our character models can successfully learn to not only generate well-formed words for Czech, a highly-inflected language with a very complex vocabulary, but also build correct representations for English source words.

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Building Machines That Learn and Think Like People

Brenden M. Lake, Tomer D. Ullman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Samuel J. Gershman

Recent progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has renewed interest in building systems that learn and think like people. Many advances have come from using deep neural networks trained end-to-end in tasks such as object recognition, video games, and board games, achieving performance that equals or even beats humans in some respects. Despite their biological inspiration and performance achievements, these systems differ from human intelligence in crucial ways. We review progress in cognitive science suggesting that truly human-like learning and thinking machines will have to reach beyond current engineering trends in both what they learn, and how they learn it. Specifically, we argue that these machines should (a) build causal models of the world that support explanation and understanding, rather than merely solving pattern recognition problems; (b) ground learning in intuitive theories of physics and psychology, to support and enrich the knowledge that is learned; and (c) harness compositionality and learning-to-learn to rapidly acquire and generalize knowledge to new tasks and situations. We suggest concrete challenges and promising routes towards these goals that can combine the strengths of recent neural network advances with more structured cognitive models.

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Deep Networks with Stochastic Depth

Gao Huang, Yu Sun, Zhuang Liu, Daniel Sedra, Kilian Weinberger

Very deep convolutional networks with hundreds of layers have led to significant reductions in error on competitive benchmarks. Although the unmatched expressiveness of the many layers can be highly desirable at test time, training very deep networks comes with its own set of challenges. The gradients can vanish, the forward flow often diminishes, and the training time can be painfully slow. To address these problems, we propose stochastic depth, a training procedure that enables the seemingly contradictory setup to train short networks and use deep networks at test time. We start with very deep networks but during training, for each mini-batch, randomly drop a subset of layers and bypass them with the identity function. This simple approach complements the recent success of residual networks. It reduces training time substantially and improves the test error significantly on almost all data sets that we used for evaluation. With stochastic depth we can increase the depth of residual networks even beyond 1200 layers and still yield meaningful improvements in test error (4.91% on CIFAR-10).

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Unsupervised Learning of Visual Representations by Solving Jigsaw Puzzles

Mehdi Noroozi, Paolo Favaro

In this paper we study the problem of image representation learning without human annotation. By following the principles of self-supervision, we build a convolutional neural network (CNN) that can be trained to solve Jigsaw puzzles as a pretext task, which requires no manual labeling, and then later repurposed to solve object classification and detection. To maintain the compatibility across tasks we introduce the context-free network (CFN), a siamese-ennead CNN. The CFN takes image tiles as input and explicitly limits the receptive field (or context) of its early processing units to one tile at a time. We show that the CFN is a more compact version of AlexNet, but with the same semantic learning capabilities. By training the CFN to solve Jigsaw puzzles, we learn both a feature mapping of object parts as well as their correct spatial arrangement. Our experimental evaluations show that the learned features capture semantically relevant content. After training our CFN features to solve jigsaw puzzles on the training set of the ILSRV 2012 dataset, we transfer them via fine-tuning on the combined training and validation set of Pascal VOC 2007 for object detection (via fast RCNN) and classification. The performance of the CFN features is 51.8% for detection and 68.6% for classification, which is the highest among features obtained via unsupervised learning, and closing the gap with features obtained via supervised learning (56.5% and 78.2% respectively). In object classification the CFN features achieve 38.1% on the ILSRV 2012 validation set, after fine-tuning only the fully connected layers on the training set.

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Recurrent Batch Normalization

Tim Cooijmans, Nicolas Ballas, César Laurent, Çağlar Gülçehre, Aaron Courville

We propose a reparameterization of LSTM that brings the benefits of batch normalization to recurrent neural networks. Whereas previous works only apply batch normalization to the input-to-hidden transformation of RNNs, we demonstrate that it is both possible and beneficial to batch-normalize the hidden-to-hidden transition, thereby reducing internal covariate shift between time steps. We evaluate our proposal on various sequential problems such as sequence classification, language modeling and question answering. Our empirical results show that our batch-normalized LSTM consistently leads to faster convergence and improved generalization.

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Evolution of active categorical image classification via saccadic eye movement

Randal S. Olson, Jason H. Moore, Christoph Adami

Pattern recognition and classification is a central concern for modern information processing systems. In particular, one key challenge to image and video classification has been that the computational cost of image processing scales linearly with the number of pixels in the image or video. Here we present an intelligent machine (the "active categorical classifier," or ACC) that is inspired by the saccadic movements of the eye, and is capable of classifying images by selectively scanning only a portion of the image. We harness evolutionary computation to optimize the ACC on the MNIST hand-written digit classification task, and provide a proof-of-concept that the ACC works on noisy multi-class data. We further analyze the ACC and demonstrate its ability to classify images after viewing only a fraction of the pixels, and provide insight on future research paths to further improve upon the ACC presented here.

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Perceptual Losses for Real-Time Style Transfer and Super-Resolution

Justin Johnson, Alexandre Alahi, Li Fei-Fei

We consider image transformation problems, where an input image is transformed into an output image. Recent methods for such problems typically train feed-forward convolutional neural networks using a \emph{per-pixel} loss between the output and ground-truth images. Parallel work has shown that high-quality images can be generated by defining and optimizing \emph{perceptual} loss functions based on high-level features extracted from pretrained networks. We combine the benefits of both approaches, and propose the use of perceptual loss functions for training feed-forward networks for image transformation tasks. We show results on image style transfer, where a feed-forward network is trained to solve the optimization problem proposed by Gatys et al in real-time. Compared to the optimization-based method, our network gives similar qualitative results but is three orders of magnitude faster. We also experiment with single-image super-resolution, where replacing a per-pixel loss with a perceptual loss gives visually pleasing results.

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Pointing the Unknown Words

Caglar Gulcehre, Sungjin Ahn, Ramesh Nallapati, Bowen Zhou, Yoshua Bengio

The problem of rare and unknown words is an important issue that can potentially influence the performance of many NLP systems, including both the traditional count-based and the deep learning models. We propose a novel way to deal with the rare and unseen words for the neural network models using attention. Our model uses two softmax layers in order to predict the next word in conditional language models: one predicts the location of a word in the source sentence, and the other predicts a word in the shortlist vocabulary. At each time-step, the decision of which softmax layer to use choose adaptively made by an MLP which is conditioned on the context.~We motivate our work from a psychological evidence that humans naturally have a tendency to point towards objects in the context or the environment when the name of an object is not known.~We observe improvements on two tasks, neural machine translation on the Europarl English to French parallel corpora and text summarization on the Gigaword dataset using our proposed model.

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Improving Information Extraction by Acquiring External Evidence with Reinforcement Learning

Karthik Narasimhan, Adam Yala, Regina Barzilay

Most successful information extraction systems operate with access to a large collection of documents. In this work, we explore the task of acquiring and incorporating external evidence to improve extraction accuracy in domains where the amount of training data is scarce. This process entails issuing search queries, extraction from new sources and reconciliation of extracted values, which are repeated until sufficient evidence is collected. We approach the problem using a reinforcement learning framework where our model learns to select optimal actions based on contextual information. We employ a deep Q-network, trained to optimize a reward function that reflects extraction accuracy while penalizing extra effort. Our experiments on two databases -- of shooting incidents, and food adulteration cases -- demonstrate that our system significantly outperforms traditional extractors and a competitive meta-classifier baseline.

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A guide to convolution arithmetic for deep learning

Vincent Dumoulin, Francesco Visin

We introduce a guide to help deep learning practitioners understand and manipulate convolutional neural network architectures. The guide clarifies the relationship between various properties (input shape, kernel shape, zero padding, strides and output shape) of convolutional, pooling and transposed convolutional layers, as well as the relationship between convolutional and transposed convolutional layers. Relationships are derived for various cases, and are illustrated in order to make them intuitive.

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Hyperband: A Novel Bandit-Based Approach to Hyperparameter Optimization

Lisha Li, Kevin Jamieson, Giulia DeSalvo, Afshin Rostamizadeh, Ameet Talwalkar

Performance of machine learning algorithms depends critically on identifying a good set of hyperparameters. While current methods offer efficiencies by adaptively choosing new configurations to train, an alternative strategy is to adaptively allocate resources across the selected configurations. We formulate hyperparameter optimization as a pure-exploration non-stochastic infinitely many armed bandit problem where a predefined resource like iterations, data samples, or features is allocated to randomly sampled configurations. We introduce Hyperband for this framework and analyze its theoretical properties, providing several desirable guarantees. Furthermore, we compare Hyperband with state-of-the-art methods on a suite of hyperparameter optimization problems. We observe that Hyperband provides speedups of five times to more than an order of magnitude over state-of-the-art Bayesian optimization algorithms on a variety of deep-learning and kernel-based learning problems.

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Incorporating Copying Mechanism in Sequence-to-Sequence Learning

Jiatao Gu, Zhengdong Lu, Hang Li, Victor O. K. Li

We address an important problem in sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) learning referred to as copying, in which certain segments in the input sequence are selectively replicated in the output sequence. A similar phenomenon is observable in human language communication. For example, humans tend to repeat entity names or even long phrases in conversation. The challenge with regard to copying in Seq2Seq is that new machinery is needed to decide when to perform the operation. In this paper, we incorporate copying into neural network-based Seq2Seq learning and propose a new model called CopyNet with encoder-decoder structure. CopyNet can nicely integrate the regular way of word generation in the decoder with the new copying mechanism which can choose sub-sequences in the input sequence and put them at proper places in the output sequence. Our empirical study on both synthetic data sets and real world data sets demonstrates the efficacy of CopyNet. For example, CopyNet can outperform regular RNN-based model with remarkable margins on text summarization tasks.

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The Multiscale Laplacian Graph Kernel

Risi Kondor, Horace Pan

Many real world graphs, such as the graphs of molecules, exhibit structure at multiple different scales, but most existing kernels between graphs are either purely local or purely global in character. In contrast, by building a hierarchy of nested subgraphs, the Multiscale Laplacian Graph kernels (MLG kernels) that we define in this paper can account for structure at a range of different scales. At the heart of the MLG construction is another new graph kernel, called the Feature Space Laplacian Graph kernel (FLG kernel), which has the property that it can lift a base kernel defined on the vertices of two graphs to a kernel between the graphs. The MLG kernel applies such FLG kernels to subgraphs recursively. To make the MLG kernel computationally feasible, we also introduce a randomized projection procedure, similar to the Nystr\"om method, but for RKHS operators.

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Neurally-Guided Procedural Models: Amortized Inference for Procedural Graphics Programs using Neural Networks

Daniel Ritchie, Anna Thomas, Pat Hanrahan, Noah D. Goodman

Probabilistic inference algorithms such as Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) provide powerful tools for constraining procedural models in computer graphics, but they require many samples to produce desirable results. In this paper, we show how to create procedural models which learn how to satisfy constraints. We augment procedural models with neural networks which control how the model makes random choices based on the output it has generated thus far. We call such models neurally-guided procedural models. As a pre-computation, we train these models to maximize the likelihood of example outputs generated via SMC. They are then used as efficient SMC importance samplers, generating high-quality results with very few samples. We evaluate our method on L-system-like models with image-based constraints. Given a desired quality threshold, neurally-guided models can generate satisfactory results up to 10x faster than unguided models.

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Katyusha: The First Direct Acceleration of Stochastic Gradient Methods

Zeyuan Allen-Zhu

We introduce $\mathtt{Katyusha}$, the first direct, primal-only stochastic gradient method that has a provably accelerated convergence rate in convex optimization. In contrast, previous methods are based on dual coordinate descent which are more restrictive, or based on outer-inner loops which make them "blind" to the underlying stochastic nature of the optimization process. $\mathtt{Katyusha}$ is the first algorithm that incorporates acceleration directly into stochastic gradient updates. Unlike previous results, $\mathtt{Katyusha}$ obtains an optimal convergence rate. It also supports proximal updates, non-Euclidean norm smoothness, non-uniform sampling, and mini-batch sampling. When applied to interesting classes of convex objectives, including smooth objectives (e.g., Lasso, Logistic Regression), strongly-convex objectives (e.g., SVM), and non-smooth objectives (e.g., L1SVM), $\mathtt{Katyusha}$ improves the best known convergence rates. The main ingredient behind our result is $\textit{Katyusha momentum}$, a novel "negative momentum on top of momentum" that can be incorporated into a variance-reduction based algorithm and speed it up. As a result, since variance reduction has been successfully applied to a fast growing list of practical problems, our paper suggests that in each of such cases, one had better hurry up and give Katyusha a hug.

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Recurrent Dropout without Memory Loss

Stanislau Semeniuta, Aliaksei Severyn, Erhardt Barth

This paper presents a novel approach to recurrent neural network (RNN) regularization. Differently from the widely adopted dropout method, which is applied to \textit{forward} connections of feed-forward architectures or RNNs, we propose to drop neurons directly in \textit{recurrent} connections in a way that does not cause loss of long-term memory. Our approach is as easy to implement and apply as the regular feed-forward dropout and we demonstrate its effectiveness for Long Short-Term Memory network, the most popular type of RNN cells. Our experiments on NLP benchmarks show consistent improvements even when combined with conventional feed-forward dropout.

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One-Shot Generalization in Deep Generative Models

Danilo Jimenez Rezende, Shakir Mohamed, Ivo Danihelka, Karol Gregor, Daan Wierstra

Humans have an impressive ability to reason about new concepts and experiences from just a single example. In particular, humans have an ability for one-shot generalization: an ability to encounter a new concept, understand its structure, and then be able to generate compelling alternative variations of the concept. We develop machine learning systems with this important capacity by developing new deep generative models, models that combine the representational power of deep learning with the inferential power of Bayesian reasoning. We develop a class of sequential generative models that are built on the principles of feedback and attention. These two characteristics lead to generative models that are among the state-of-the art in density estimation and image generation. We demonstrate the one-shot generalization ability of our models using three tasks: unconditional sampling, generating new exemplars of a given concept, and generating new exemplars of a family of concepts. In all cases our models are able to generate compelling and diverse samples---having seen new examples just once---providing an important class of general-purpose models for one-shot machine learning.

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Unsupervised CNN for Single View Depth Estimation: Geometry to the Rescue

Ravi Garg, Vijay Kumar BG, Gustavo Carneiro, Ian Reid

A significant weakness of most current deep Convolutional Neural Networks is the need to train them using vast amounts of manu- ally labelled data. In this work we propose a unsupervised framework to learn a deep convolutional neural network for single view depth predic- tion, without requiring a pre-training stage or annotated ground truth depths. We achieve this by training the network in a manner analogous to an autoencoder. At training time we consider a pair of images, source and target, with small, known camera motion between the two such as a stereo pair. We train the convolutional encoder for the task of predicting the depth map for the source image. To do so, we explicitly generate an inverse warp of the target image using the predicted depth and known inter-view displacement, to reconstruct the source image; the photomet- ric error in the reconstruction is the reconstruction loss for the encoder. The acquisition of this training data is considerably simpler than for equivalent systems, requiring no manual annotation, nor calibration of depth sensor to camera. We show that our network trained on less than half of the KITTI dataset (without any further augmentation) gives com- parable performance to that of the state of art supervised methods for single view depth estimation.

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Texture Networks: Feed-forward Synthesis of Textures and Stylized Images

Dmitry Ulyanov, Vadim Lebedev, Andrea Vedaldi, Victor Lempitsky

Gatys et al. recently demonstrated that deep networks can generate beautiful textures and stylized images from a single texture example. However, their methods requires a slow and memory-consuming optimization process. We propose here an alternative approach that moves the computational burden to a learning stage. Given a single example of a texture, our approach trains compact feed-forward convolutional networks to generate multiple samples of the same texture of arbitrary size and to transfer artistic style from a given image to any other image. The resulting networks are remarkably light-weight and can generate textures of quality comparable to Gatys~et~al., but hundreds of times faster. More generally, our approach highlights the power and flexibility of generative feed-forward models trained with complex and expressive loss functions.

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