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The Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence: Forecasting, Prevention, and Mitigation

Miles Brundage, Shahar Avin, Jack Clark, Helen Toner, Peter Eckersley, Ben Garfinkel, Allan Dafoe, Paul Scharre, Thomas Zeitzoff, Bobby Filar, Hyrum Anderson, Heather Roff, Gregory C. Allen, Jacob Steinhardt, Carrick Flynn, Seán Ó hÉigeartaigh, Simon Beard, Haydn Belfield, Sebastian Farquhar, Clare Lyle, Rebecca Crootof, Owain Evans, Michael Page, Joanna Bryson, Roman Yampolskiy, Dario Amodei

This report surveys the landscape of potential security threats from malicious uses of AI, and proposes ways to better forecast, prevent, and mitigate these threats. After analyzing the ways in which AI may influence the threat landscape in the digital, physical, and political domains, we make four high-level recommendations for AI researchers and other stakeholders. We also suggest several promising areas for further research that could expand the portfolio of defenses, or make attacks less effective or harder to execute. Finally, we discuss, but do not conclusively resolve, the long-term equilibrium of attackers and defenders.

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Fitting New Speakers Based on a Short Untranscribed Sample

Eliya Nachmani, Adam Polyak, Yaniv Taigman, Lior Wolf

Learning-based Text To Speech systems have the potential to generalize from one speaker to the next and thus require a relatively short sample of any new voice. However, this promise is currently largely unrealized. We present a method that is designed to capture a new speaker from a short untranscribed audio sample. This is done by employing an additional network that given an audio sample, places the speaker in the embedding space. This network is trained as part of the speech synthesis system using various consistency losses. Our results demonstrate a greatly improved performance on both the dataset speakers, and, more importantly, when fitting new voices, even from very short samples.

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Image Tranformer

Niki Parmar, Ashish Vaswani, Jakob Uszkoreit, Łukasz Kaiser, Noam Shazeer, Alexander Ku

Image generation has been successfully cast as an autoregressive sequence generation or transformation problem. Recent work has shown that self-attention is an effective way of modeling textual sequences. In this work, we generalize a recently proposed model architecture based on self-attention, the Transformer, to a sequence modeling formulation of image generation with a tractable likelihood. By restricting the self-attention mechanism to attend to local neighborhoods we significantly increase the size of images the model can process in practice, despite maintaining significantly larger receptive fields per layer than typical convolutional neural networks. We propose another extension of self-attention allowing it to efficiently take advantage of the two-dimensional nature of images. While conceptually simple, our generative models significantly outperform the current state of the art in image generation on ImageNet, improving the best published negative log-likelihood on ImageNet from 3.83 to 3.77. We also present results on image super-resolution with a large magnification ratio, applying an encoder-decoder configuration of our architecture. In a human evaluation study, we show that our super-resolution models improve significantly over previously published super-resolution models. Images generated by the model fool human observers three times more often than the previous state of the art.

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SparseMAP: Differentiable Sparse Structured Inference

Vlad Niculae, André F. T. Martins, Mathieu Blondel, Claire Cardie

Structured prediction requires searching over a combinatorial number of structures. To tackle it, we introduce SparseMAP, a new method for sparse structured inference, together with corresponding loss functions. SparseMAP inference is able to automatically select only a few global structures: it is situated between MAP inference, which picks a single structure, and marginal inference, which assigns probability mass to all structures, including implausible ones. Importantly, SparseMAP can be computed using only calls to a MAP oracle, hence it is applicable even to problems where marginal inference is intractable, such as linear assignment. Moreover, thanks to the solution sparsity, gradient backpropagation is efficient regardless of the structure. SparseMAP thus enables us to augment deep neural networks with generic and sparse structured hidden layers. Experiments in dependency parsing and natural language inference reveal competitive accuracy, improved interpretability, and the ability to capture natural language ambiguities, which is attractive for pipeline systems.

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Differentiable Dynamic Programming for Structured Prediction and Attention

Arthur Mensch, Mathieu Blondel

Dynamic programming (DP) solves a variety of structured combinatorial problems by iteratively breaking them down into smaller subproblems. In spite of their versatility, DP algorithms are usually non-differentiable, which hampers their use as a layer in neural networks trained by backpropagation. To address this issue, we propose to smooth the max operator in the dynamic programming recursion, using a strongly convex regularizer. This allows to relax both the optimal value and solution of the original combinatorial problem, and turns a broad class of DP algorithms into differentiable operators. Theoretically, we provide a new probabilistic perspective on backpropagating through these DP operators, and relate them to inference in graphical models. We derive two particular instantiations of our framework, a smoothed Viterbi algorithm for sequence prediction and a smoothed DTW algorithm for time-series alignment. We showcase these instantiations on two structured prediction tasks and on structured and sparse attention for neural machine translation.

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Driver Gaze Zone Estimation using Convolutional Neural Networks: A General Framework and Ablative Analysis

Sourabh Vora, Akshay Rangesh, Mohan M. Trivedi

Driver gaze has been shown to be an excellent surrogate for driver attention in intelligent vehicles. With the recent surge of highly autonomous vehicles, driver gaze can be useful for determining the handoff time to a human driver. While there has been significant improvement in personalized driver gaze zone estimation systems, a generalized system which is invariant to different subjects, perspectives and scales is still lacking. We take a step towards this generalized system using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). We finetune 4 popular CNN architectures for this task, and provide extensive comparisons of their outputs. We additionally experiment with different input image patches, and also examine how image size affects performance. For training and testing the networks, we collect a large naturalistic driving dataset comprising of 11 long drives, driven by 10 subjects in two different cars. Our best performing model achieves an accuracy of 95.18% during cross-subject testing, outperforming current state of the art techniques for this task. Finally, we evaluate our best performing model on the publicly available Columbia Gaze Dataset comprising of images from 56 subjects with varying head pose and gaze directions. Without any training, our model successfully encodes the different gaze directions on this diverse dataset, demonstrating good generalization capabilities.

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Spherical CNNs

Taco S. Cohen, Mario Geiger, Jonas Koehler, Max Welling

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the method of choice for learning problems involving 2D planar images. However, a number of problems of recent interest have created a demand for models that can analyze spherical images. Examples include omnidirectional vision for drones, robots, and autonomous cars, molecular regression problems, and global weather and climate modelling. A naive application of convolutional networks to a planar projection of the spherical signal is destined to fail, because the space-varying distortions introduced by such a projection will make translational weight sharing ineffective. In this paper we introduce the building blocks for constructing spherical CNNs. We propose a definition for the spherical cross-correlation that is both expressive and rotation-equivariant. The spherical correlation satisfies a generalized Fourier theorem, which allows us to compute it efficiently using a generalized (non-commutative) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. We demonstrate the computational efficiency, numerical accuracy, and effectiveness of spherical CNNs applied to 3D model recognition and atomization energy regression.

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Not All Ops Are Created Equal!

Liangzhen Lai, Naveen Suda, Vikas Chandra

Efficient and compact neural network models are essential for enabling the deployment on mobile and embedded devices. In this work, we point out that typical design metrics for gauging the efficiency of neural network architectures -- total number of operations and parameters -- are not sufficient. These metrics may not accurately correlate with the actual deployment metrics such as energy and memory footprint. We show that throughput and energy varies by up to 5X across different neural network operation types on an off-the-shelf Arm Cortex-M7 microcontroller. Furthermore, we show that the memory required for activation data also need to be considered, apart from the model parameters, for network architecture exploration studies.

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MINE: Mutual Information Neural Estimation

Ishmael Belghazi, Sai Rajeswar, Aristide Baratin, R Devon Hjelm, Aaron Courville

We argue that the estimation of the mutual information between high dimensional continuous random variables is achievable by gradient descent over neural networks. This paper presents a Mutual Information Neural Estimator (MINE) that is linearly scalable in dimensionality as well as in sample size. MINE is back-propable and we prove that it is strongly consistent. We illustrate a handful of applications in which MINE is succesfully applied to enhance the property of generative models in both unsupervised and supervised settings. We apply our framework to estimate the information bottleneck, and apply it in tasks related to supervised classification problems. Our results demonstrate substantial added flexibility and improvement in these settings.

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Neural Program Synthesis with Priority Queue Training

Daniel A. Abolafia, Mohammad Norouzi, Quoc V. Le

We consider the task of program synthesis in the presence of a reward function over the output of programs, where the goal is to find programs with maximal rewards. We employ an iterative optimization scheme, where we train an RNN on a dataset of K best programs from a priority queue of the generated programs so far. Then, we synthesize new programs and add them to the priority queue by sampling from the RNN. We benchmark our algorithm, called priority queue training (or PQT), against genetic algorithm and reinforcement learning baselines on a simple but expressive Turing complete programming language called BF. Our experimental results show that our simple PQT algorithm significantly outperforms the baselines. By adding a program length penalty to the reward function, we are able to synthesize short, human readable programs.

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Modeling urbanization patterns with generative adversarial networks

Adrian Albert, Emanuele Strano, Jasleen Kaur, Marta Gonzalez

In this study we propose a new method to simulate hyper-realistic urban patterns using Generative Adversarial Networks trained with a global urban land-use inventory. We generated a synthetic urban "universe" that qualitatively reproduces the complex spatial organization observed in global urban patterns, while being able to quantitatively recover certain key high-level urban spatial metrics.

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SenseNet: 3D Objects Database and Tactile Simulator

Jason Toy

The majority of artificial intelligence research, as it relates from which to biological senses has been focused on vision. The recent explosion of machine learning and in particular, dee p learning, can be partially attributed to the release of high quality data sets for algorithm s from which to model the world on. Thus, most of these datasets are comprised of images. We believe that focusing on sensorimotor systems and tactile feedback will create algorithms that better mimic human intelligence. Here we present SenseNet: a collection of tactile simulators and a large scale dataset of 3D objects for manipulation. SenseNet was created for the purpose of researching and training Artificial Intelligences (AIs) to interact with the environment via sensorimotor neural systems and tactile feedback. We aim to accelerate that same explosion in image processing, but for the domain of tactile feedback and sensorimotor research. We hope that SenseNet can offer researchers in both the machine learning and computational neuroscience communities brand new opportunities and avenues to explore.

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Recent Advances in Recurrent Neural Networks

Hojjat Salehinejad, Julianne Baarbe, Sharan Sankar, Joseph Barfett, Errol Colak, Shahrokh Valaee

Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are capable of learning features and long term dependencies from sequential and time-series data. The RNNs have a stack of non-linear units where at least one connection between units forms a directed cycle. A well-trained RNN can model any dynamical system; however, training RNNs is mostly plagued by issues in learning long-term dependencies. In this paper, we present a survey on RNNs and several new advances for newcomers and professionals in the field. The fundamentals and recent advances are explained and the research challenges are introduced.

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A Flexible Approach to Automated RNN Architecture Generation

Martin Schrimpf, Stephen Merity, James Bradbury, Richard Socher

The process of designing neural architectures requires expert knowledge and extensive trial and error. While automated architecture search may simplify these requirements, the recurrent neural network (RNN) architectures generated by existing methods are limited in both flexibility and components. We propose a domain-specific language (DSL) for use in automated architecture search which can produce novel RNNs of arbitrary depth and width. The DSL is flexible enough to define standard architectures such as the Gated Recurrent Unit and Long Short Term Memory and allows the introduction of non-standard RNN components such as trigonometric curves and layer normalization. Using two different candidate generation techniques, random search with a ranking function and reinforcement learning, we explore the novel architectures produced by the RNN DSL for language modeling and machine translation domains. The resulting architectures do not follow human intuition yet perform well on their targeted tasks, suggesting the space of usable RNN architectures is far larger than previously assumed.

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Natural TTS Synthesis by Conditioning WaveNet on Mel Spectrogram Predictions

Jonathan Shen, Ruoming Pang, Ron J. Weiss, Mike Schuster, Navdeep Jaitly, Zongheng Yang, Zhifeng Chen, Yu Zhang, Yuxuan Wang, RJ Skerry-Ryan, Rif A. Saurous, Yannis Agiomyrgiannakis, Yonghui Wu

This paper describes Tacotron 2, a neural network architecture for speech synthesis directly from text. The system is composed of a recurrent sequence-to-sequence feature prediction network that maps character embeddings to mel-scale spectrograms, followed by a modified WaveNet model acting as a vocoder to synthesize timedomain waveforms from those spectrograms. Our model achieves a mean opinion score (MOS) of 4.53 comparable to a MOS of 4.58 for professionally recorded speech. To validate our design choices, we present ablation studies of key components of our system and evaluate the impact of using mel spectrograms as the input to WaveNet instead of linguistic, duration, and F0 features. We further demonstrate that using a compact acoustic intermediate representation enables significant simplification of the WaveNet architecture.

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Peephole: Predicting Network Performance Before Training

Boyang Deng, Junjie Yan, Dahua Lin

The quest for performant networks has been a significant force that drives the advancements of deep learning in recent years. While rewarding, improving network design has never been an easy journey. The large design space combined with the tremendous cost required for network training poses a major obstacle to this endeavor. In this work, we propose a new approach to this problem, namely, predicting the performance of a network before training, based on its architecture. Specifically, we develop a unified way to encode individual layers into vectors and bring them together to form an integrated description via LSTM. Taking advantage of the recurrent network's strong expressive power, this method can reliably predict the performances of various network architectures. Our empirical studies showed that it not only achieved accurate predictions but also produced consistent rankings across datasets -- a key desideratum in performance prediction.

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Mastering Chess and Shogi by Self-Play with a General Reinforcement Learning Algorithm

David Silver, Thomas Hubert, Julian Schrittwieser, Ioannis Antonoglou, Matthew Lai, Arthur Guez, Marc Lanctot, Laurent Sifre, Dharshan Kumaran, Thore Graepel, Timothy Lillicrap, Karen Simonyan, Demis Hassabis

The game of chess is the most widely-studied domain in the history of artificial intelligence. The strongest programs are based on a combination of sophisticated search techniques, domain-specific adaptations, and handcrafted evaluation functions that have been refined by human experts over several decades. In contrast, the AlphaGo Zero program recently achieved superhuman performance in the game of Go, by tabula rasa reinforcement learning from games of self-play. In this paper, we generalise this approach into a single AlphaZero algorithm that can achieve, tabula rasa, superhuman performance in many challenging domains. Starting from random play, and given no domain knowledge except the game rules, AlphaZero achieved within 24 hours a superhuman level of play in the games of chess and shogi (Japanese chess) as well as Go, and convincingly defeated a world-champion program in each case.

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Progressive Neural Architecture Search

Chenxi Liu, Barret Zoph, Jonathon Shlens, Wei Hua, Li-Jia Li, Li Fei-Fei, Alan Yuille, Jonathan Huang, Kevin Murphy

We propose a method for learning CNN structures that is more efficient than previous approaches: instead of using reinforcement learning (RL) or genetic algorithms (GA), we use a sequential model-based optimization (SMBO) strategy, in which we search for architectures in order of increasing complexity, while simultaneously learning a surrogate function to guide the search, similar to A* search. On the CIFAR-10 dataset, our method finds a CNN structure with the same classification accuracy (3.41% error rate) as the RL method of Zoph et al. (2017), but 2 times faster (in terms of number of models evaluated). It also outperforms the GA method of Liu et al. (2017), which finds a model with worse performance (3.63% error rate), and takes 5 times longer. Finally we show that the model we learned on CIFAR also works well at the task of ImageNet classification. In particular, we match the state-of-the-art performance of 82.9% top-1 and 96.1% top-5 accuracy.

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Deep Learning Scaling is Predictable, Empirically

Joel Hestness, Sharan Narang, Newsha Ardalani, Gregory Diamos, Heewoo Jun, Hassan Kianinejad, Md. Mostofa Ali Patwary, Yang Yang, Yanqi Zhou

Deep learning (DL) creates impactful advances following a virtuous recipe: model architecture search, creating large training data sets, and scaling computation. It is widely believed that growing training sets and models should improve accuracy and result in better products. As DL application domains grow, we would like a deeper understanding of the relationships between training set size, computational scale, and model accuracy improvements to advance the state-of-the-art. This paper presents a large scale empirical characterization of generalization error and model size growth as training sets grow. We introduce a methodology for this measurement and test four machine learning domains: machine translation, language modeling, image processing, and speech recognition. Our empirical results show power-law generalization error scaling across a breadth of factors, resulting in power-law exponents---the "steepness" of the learning curve---yet to be explained by theoretical work. Further, model improvements only shift the error but do not appear to affect the power-law exponent. We also show that model size scales sublinearly with data size. These scaling relationships have significant implications on deep learning research, practice, and systems. They can assist model debugging, setting accuracy targets, and decisions about data set growth. They can also guide computing system design and underscore the importance of continued computational scaling.

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Wavenet based low rate speech coding

W. Bastiaan Kleijn, Felicia S. C. Lim, Alejandro Luebs, Jan Skoglund, Florian Stimberg, Quan Wang, Thomas C. Walters

Traditional parametric coding of speech facilitates low rate but provides poor reconstruction quality because of the inadequacy of the model used. We describe how a WaveNet generative speech model can be used to generate high quality speech from the bit stream of a standard parametric coder operating at 2.4 kb/s. We compare this parametric coder with a waveform coder based on the same generative model and show that approximating the signal waveform incurs a large rate penalty. Our experiments confirm the high performance of the WaveNet based coder and show that the speech produced by the system is able to additionally perform implicit bandwidth extension and does not significantly impair recognition of the original speaker for the human listener, even when that speaker has not been used during the training of the generative model.

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