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Papers


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Top-Down Tree Structured Text Generation

Qipeng Guo, Xipeng Qiu, Xiangyang Xue, Zheng Zhang

Text generation is a fundamental building block in natural language processing tasks. Existing sequential models performs autoregression directly over the text sequence and have difficulty generating long sentences of complex structures. This paper advocates a simple approach that treats sentence generation as a tree-generation task. By explicitly modelling syntactic structures in a constituent syntactic tree and performing top-down, breadth-first tree generation, our model fixes dependencies appropriately and performs implicit global planning. This is in contrast to transition-based depth-first generation process, which has difficulty dealing with incomplete texts when parsing and also does not incorporate future contexts in planning. Our preliminary results on two generation tasks and one parsing task demonstrate that this is an effective strategy.

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Character-Level Language Modeling with Deeper Self-Attention

Rami Al-Rfou, Dokook Choe, Noah Constant, Mandy Guo, Llion Jones

LSTMs and other RNN variants have shown strong performance on character-level language modeling. These models are typically trained using truncated backpropagation through time, and it is common to assume that their success stems from their ability to remember long-term contexts. In this paper, we show that a deep (64-layer) transformer model with fixed context outperforms RNN variants by a large margin, achieving state of the art on two popular benchmarks- 1.13 bits per character on text8 and 1.06 on enwik8. To get good results at this depth, we show that it is important to add auxiliary losses, both at intermediate network layers and intermediate sequence positions.

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Predicting Expressive Speaking Style From Text In End-To-End Speech Synthesis

Daisy Stanton, Yuxuan Wang, RJ Skerry-Ryan

Global Style Tokens (GSTs) are a recently-proposed method to learn latent disentangled representations of high-dimensional data. GSTs can be used within Tacotron, a state-of-the-art end-to-end text-to-speech synthesis system, to uncover expressive factors of variation in speaking style. In this work, we introduce the Text-Predicted Global Style Token (TP-GST) architecture, which treats GST combination weights or style embeddings as "virtual" speaking style labels within Tacotron. TP-GST learns to predict stylistic renderings from text alone, requiring neither explicit labels during training nor auxiliary inputs for inference. We show that, when trained on a dataset of expressive speech, our system generates audio with more pitch and energy variation than two state-of-the-art baseline models. We further demonstrate that TP-GSTs can synthesize speech with background noise removed, and corroborate these analyses with positive results on human-rated listener preference audiobook tasks. Finally, we demonstrate that multi-speaker TP-GST models successfully factorize speaker identity and speaking style. We provide a website with audio samples for each of our findings.

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Diverse Image-to-Image Translation via Disentangled Representations

Hsin-Ying Lee, Hung-Yu Tseng, Jia-Bin Huang, Maneesh Kumar Singh, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Image-to-image translation aims to learn the mapping between two visual domains. There are two main challenges for many applications: 1) the lack of aligned training pairs and 2) multiple possible outputs from a single input image. In this work, we present an approach based on disentangled representation for producing diverse outputs without paired training images. To achieve diversity, we propose to embed images onto two spaces: a domain-invariant content space capturing shared information across domains and a domain-specific attribute space. Our model takes the encoded content features extracted from a given input and the attribute vectors sampled from the attribute space to produce diverse outputs at test time. To handle unpaired training data, we introduce a novel cross-cycle consistency loss based on disentangled representations. Qualitative results show that our model can generate diverse and realistic images on a wide range of tasks without paired training data. For quantitative comparisons, we measure realism with user study and diversity with a perceptual distance metric. We apply the proposed model to domain adaptation and show competitive performance when compared to the state-of-the-art on the MNIST-M and the LineMod datasets.

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Highly Scalable Deep Learning Training System with Mixed-Precision: Training ImageNet in Four Minutes

Xianyan Jia, Shutao Song, Wei He, Yangzihao Wang, Haidong Rong, Feihu Zhou, Liqiang Xie, Zhenyu Guo, Yuanzhou Yang, Liwei Yu, Tiegang Chen, Guangxiao Hu, Shaohuai Shi, Xiaowen Chu

Synchronized stochastic gradient descent (SGD) optimizers with data parallelism are widely used in training large-scale deep neural networks. Although using larger mini-batch sizes can improve the system scalability by reducing the communication-to-computation ratio, it may hurt the generalization ability of the models. To this end, we build a highly scalable deep learning training system for dense GPU clusters with three main contributions: (1) We propose a mixed-precision training method that significantly improves the training throughput of a single GPU without losing accuracy. (2) We propose an optimization approach for extremely large mini-batch size (up to 64k) that can train CNN models on the ImageNet dataset without losing accuracy. (3) We propose highly optimized all-reduce algorithms that achieve up to 3x and 11x speedup on AlexNet and ResNet-50 respectively than NCCL-based training on a cluster with 1024 Tesla P40 GPUs. On training ResNet-50 with 90 epochs, the state-of-the-art GPU-based system with 1024 Tesla P100 GPUs spent 15 minutes and achieved 74.9\% top-1 test accuracy, and another KNL-based system with 2048 Intel KNLs spent 20 minutes and achieved 75.4\% accuracy. Our training system can achieve 75.8\% top-1 test accuracy in only 6.6 minutes using 2048 Tesla P40 GPUs. When training AlexNet with 95 epochs, our system can achieve 58.7\% top-1 test accuracy within 4 minutes, which also outperforms all other existing systems.

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Speaker Recognition from raw waveform with SincNet

Mirco Ravanelli, Yoshua Bengio

Deep learning is progressively gaining popularity as a viable alternative to i-vectors for speaker recognition. Promising results have been recently obtained with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) when fed by raw speech samples directly. Rather than employing standard hand-crafted features, the latter CNNs learn low-level speech representations from waveforms, potentially allowing the network to better capture important narrow-band speaker characteristics such as pitch and formants. Proper design of the neural network is crucial to achieve this goal. This paper proposes a novel CNN architecture, called SincNet, that encourages the first convolutional layer to discover more meaningful filters. SincNet is based on parametrized sinc functions, which implement band-pass filters. In contrast to standard CNNs, that learn all elements of each filter, only low and high cutoff frequencies are directly learned from data with the proposed method. This offers a very compact and efficient way to derive a customized filter bank specifically tuned for the desired application. Our experiments, conducted on both speaker identification and speaker verification tasks, show that the proposed architecture converges faster and performs better than a standard CNN on raw waveforms.

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Pangloss: Fast Entity Linking in Noisy Text Environments

Michael Conover, Matthew Hayes, Scott Blackburn, Pete Skomoroch, Sam Shah

Entity linking is the task of mapping potentially ambiguous terms in text to their constituent entities in a knowledge base like Wikipedia. This is useful for organizing content, extracting structured data from textual documents, and in machine learning relevance applications like semantic search, knowledge graph construction, and question answering. Traditionally, this work has focused on text that has been well-formed, like news articles, but in common real world datasets such as messaging, resumes, or short-form social media, non-grammatical, loosely-structured text adds a new dimension to this problem. This paper presents Pangloss, a production system for entity disambiguation on noisy text. Pangloss combines a probabilistic linear-time key phrase identification algorithm with a semantic similarity engine based on context-dependent document embeddings to achieve better than state-of-the-art results (>5% in F1) compared to other research or commercially available systems. In addition, Pangloss leverages a local embedded database with a tiered architecture to house its statistics and metadata, which allows rapid disambiguation in streaming contexts and on-device disambiguation in low-memory environments such as mobile phones.

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Neural Processes

Marta Garnelo, Jonathan Schwarz, Dan Rosenbaum, Fabio Viola, Danilo J. Rezende, S. M. Ali Eslami, Yee Whye Teh

A neural network (NN) is a parameterised function that can be tuned via gradient descent to approximate a labelled collection of data with high precision. A Gaussian process (GP), on the other hand, is a probabilistic model that defines a distribution over possible functions, and is updated in light of data via the rules of probabilistic inference. GPs are probabilistic, data-efficient and flexible, however they are also computationally intensive and thus limited in their applicability. We introduce a class of neural latent variable models which we call Neural Processes (NPs), combining the best of both worlds. Like GPs, NPs define distributions over functions, are capable of rapid adaptation to new observations, and can estimate the uncertainty in their predictions. Like NNs, NPs are computationally efficient during training and evaluation but also learn to adapt their priors to data. We demonstrate the performance of NPs on a range of learning tasks, including regression and optimisation, and compare and contrast with related models in the literature.

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Conditional Neural Processes

Marta Garnelo, Dan Rosenbaum, Chris J. Maddison, Tiago Ramalho, David Saxton, Murray Shanahan, Yee Whye Teh, Danilo J. Rezende, S. M. Ali Eslami

Deep neural networks excel at function approximation, yet they are typically trained from scratch for each new function. On the other hand, Bayesian methods, such as Gaussian Processes (GPs), exploit prior knowledge to quickly infer the shape of a new function at test time. Yet GPs are computationally expensive, and it can be hard to design appropriate priors. In this paper we propose a family of neural models, Conditional Neural Processes (CNPs), that combine the benefits of both. CNPs are inspired by the flexibility of stochastic processes such as GPs, but are structured as neural networks and trained via gradient descent. CNPs make accurate predictions after observing only a handful of training data points, yet scale to complex functions and large datasets. We demonstrate the performance and versatility of the approach on a range of canonical machine learning tasks, including regression, classification and image completion.

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StructVAE: Tree-structured Latent Variable Models for Semi-supervised Semantic Parsing

Pengcheng Yin, Chunting Zhou, Junxian He, Graham Neubig

Semantic parsing is the task of transducing natural language (NL) utterances into formal meaning representations (MRs), commonly represented as tree structures. Annotating NL utterances with their corresponding MRs is expensive and time-consuming, and thus the limited availability of labeled data often becomes the bottleneck of data-driven, supervised models. We introduce StructVAE, a variational auto-encoding model for semisupervised semantic parsing, which learns both from limited amounts of parallel data, and readily-available unlabeled NL utterances. StructVAE models latent MRs not observed in the unlabeled data as tree-structured latent variables. Experiments on semantic parsing on the ATIS domain and Python code generation show that with extra unlabeled data, StructVAE outperforms strong supervised models.

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A Probabilistic U-Net for Segmentation of Ambiguous Images

Simon A. A. Kohl, Bernardino Romera-Paredes, Clemens Meyer, Jeffrey De Fauw, Joseph R. Ledsam, Klaus H. Maier-Hein, S. M. Ali Eslami, Danilo Jimenez Rezende, Olaf Ronneberger

Many real-world vision problems suffer from inherent ambiguities. In clinical applications for example, it might not be clear from a CT scan alone which particular region is cancer tissue. Therefore a group of graders typically produces a set of diverse but plausible segmentations. We consider the task of learning a distribution over segmentations given an input. To this end we propose a generative segmentation model based on a combination of a U-Net with a conditional variational autoencoder that is capable of efficiently producing an unlimited number of plausible hypotheses. We show on a lung abnormalities segmentation task and on a Cityscapes segmentation task that our model reproduces the possible segmentation variants as well as the frequencies with which they occur, doing so significantly better than published approaches. These models could have a high impact in real-world applications, such as being used as clinical decision-making algorithms accounting for multiple plausible semantic segmentation hypotheses to provide possible diagnoses and recommend further actions to resolve the present ambiguities.

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Opportunities in Machine Learning for Healthcare

Marzyeh Ghassemi, Tristan Naumann, Peter Schulam, Andrew L. Beam, Rajesh Ranganath

Healthcare is a natural arena for the application of machine learning, especially as modern electronic health records (EHRs) provide increasingly large amounts of data to answer clinically meaningful questions. However, clinical data and practice present unique challenges that complicate the use of common methodologies. This article serves as a primer on addressing these challenges and highlights opportunities for members of the machine learning and data science communities to contribute to this growing domain.

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Learning a Latent Space of Multitrack Measures

Ian Simon, Adam Roberts, Colin Raffel, Jesse Engel, Curtis Hawthorne, Douglas Eck

Discovering and exploring the underlying structure of multi-instrumental music using learning-based approaches remains an open problem. We extend the recent MusicVAE model to represent multitrack polyphonic measures as vectors in a latent space. Our approach enables several useful operations such as generating plausible measures from scratch, interpolating between measures in a musically meaningful way, and manipulating specific musical attributes. We also introduce chord conditioning, which allows all of these operations to be performed while keeping harmony fixed, and allows chords to be changed while maintaining musical "style". By generating a sequence of measures over a predefined chord progression, our model can produce music with convincing long-term structure. We demonstrate that our latent space model makes it possible to intuitively control and generate musical sequences with rich instrumentation (see https://goo.gl/s2N7dV for generated audio).

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Variational Measure Preserving Flows

Yichuan Zhang, Jose Miguel Hernandez-Lobato, Zoubin Ghahramani

Probabilistic modelling is a general and elegant framework to capture the uncertainty, ambiguity and diversity of hidden structures in data. Probabilistic inference is the key operation on probabilistic models to obtain the distribution over the latent representations given data. Unfortunately, the computation of inference on complex models is extremely challenging. In spite of the success of existing inference methods, like Markov chain Monte Carlo(MCMC) and variational inference(VI), many powerful models are not available for large scale problems because inference is simply computationally intractable. The recent advances in using neural networks for probabilistic inference have shown promising results on this challenge. In this work, we propose a novel general inference framework that has the strength from both MCMC and VI. The proposed method is not only computationally scalable and efficient, but also has its root from the ergodicity theorem, that provides the guarantee of better performance with more computational power. Our experiment results suggest that our method can outperform state-of-the-art methods on generative models and Bayesian neural networks on some popular benchmark problems.

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Model Selection in Time Series Analysis: Using Information Criteria as an Alternative to Hypothesis Testing

R. Scott Hacker, Abdulnasser Hatemi-J

The issue of model selection in applied research is of vital importance. Since the true model in such research is not known, which model should be used from among various potential ones is an empirical question. There might exist several competitive models. A typical approach to dealing with this is classic hypothesis testing using an arbitrarily chosen significance level based on the underlying assumption that a true null hypothesis exists. In this paper we investigate how successful this approach is in determining the correct model for different data generating processes using time series data. An alternative approach based on more formal model selection techniques using an information criterion or cross-validation is suggested and evaluated in the time series environment via Monte Carlo experiments. This paper also explores the effectiveness of deciding what type of general relation exists between two variables (e.g. relation in levels or relation in first differences) using various strategies based on hypothesis testing and on information criteria with the presence or absence of unit roots.

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Implicit Reparameterization Gradients

Michael Figurnov, Shakir Mohamed, Andriy Mnih

By providing a simple and efficient way of computing low-variance gradients of continuous random variables, the reparameterization trick has become the technique of choice for training a variety of latent variable models. However, it is not applicable to a number of important continuous distributions. We introduce an alternative approach to computing reparameterization gradients based on implicit differentiation and demonstrate its broader applicability by applying it to Gamma, Beta, Dirichlet, and von Mises distributions, which cannot be used with the classic reparameterization trick. Our experiments show that the proposed approach is faster and more accurate than the existing gradient estimators for these distributions.

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Learning Permutations with Sinkhorn Policy Gradient

Patrick Emami, Sanjay Ranka

Many problems at the intersection of combinatorics and computer science require solving for a permutation that optimally matches, ranks, or sorts some data. These problems usually have a task-specific, often non-differentiable objective function that data-driven algorithms can use as a learning signal. In this paper, we propose the Sinkhorn Policy Gradient (SPG) algorithm for learning policies on permutation matrices. The actor-critic neural network architecture we introduce for SPG uniquely decouples representation learning of the state space from the highly-structured action space of permutations with a temperature-controlled Sinkhorn layer. The Sinkhorn layer produces continuous relaxations of permutation matrices so that the actor-critic architecture can be trained end-to-end. Our empirical results show that agents trained with SPG can perform competitively on sorting, the Euclidean TSP, and matching tasks. We also observe that SPG is significantly more data efficient at the matching task than the baseline methods, which indicates that SPG is conducive to learning representations that are useful for reasoning about permutations.

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Neural Factor Graph Models for Cross-lingual Morphological Tagging

Chaitanya Malaviya, Matthew R. Gormley, Graham Neubig

Morphological analysis involves predicting the syntactic traits of a word (e.g. {POS: Noun, Case: Acc, Gender: Fem}). Previous work in morphological tagging improves performance for low-resource languages (LRLs) through cross-lingual training with a high-resource language (HRL) from the same family, but is limited by the strict, often false, assumption that tag sets exactly overlap between the HRL and LRL. In this paper we propose a method for cross-lingual morphological tagging that aims to improve information sharing between languages by relaxing this assumption. The proposed model uses factorial conditional random fields with neural network potentials, making it possible to (1) utilize the expressive power of neural network representations to smooth over superficial differences in the surface forms, (2) model pairwise and transitive relationships between tags, and (3) accurately generate tag sets that are unseen or rare in the training data. Experiments on four languages from the Universal Dependencies Treebank demonstrate superior tagging accuracies over existing cross-lingual approaches.

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Learning to See in the Dark

Chen Chen, Qifeng Chen, Jia Xu, Vladlen Koltun

Imaging in low light is challenging due to low photon count and low SNR. Short-exposure images suffer from noise, while long exposure can induce blur and is often impractical. A variety of denoising, deblurring, and enhancement techniques have been proposed, but their effectiveness is limited in extreme conditions, such as video-rate imaging at night. To support the development of learning-based pipelines for low-light image processing, we introduce a dataset of raw short-exposure low-light images, with corresponding long-exposure reference images. Using the presented dataset, we develop a pipeline for processing low-light images, based on end-to-end training of a fully-convolutional network. The network operates directly on raw sensor data and replaces much of the traditional image processing pipeline, which tends to perform poorly on such data. We report promising results on the new dataset, analyze factors that affect performance, and highlight opportunities for future work. The results are shown in the supplementary video at https://youtu.be/qWKUFK7MWvg

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AGI Safety Literature Review

Tom Everitt, Gary Lea, Marcus Hutter

The development of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) promises to be a major event. Along with its many potential benefits, it also raises serious safety concerns (Bostrom, 2014). The intention of this paper is to provide an easily accessible and up-to-date collection of references for the emerging field of AGI safety. A significant number of safety problems for AGI have been identified. We list these, and survey recent research on solving them. We also cover works on how best to think of AGI from the limited knowledge we have today, predictions for when AGI will first be created, and what will happen after its creation. Finally, we review the current public policy on AGI.

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